Nonprofit Knowledge Graph Proposal for Google


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This is an update to the Christian Social Graph and Nonprofit Social Graph slideshares, but with a specific target on the role Google could plan with their Knowledge Graph

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Nonprofit Knowledge Graph Proposal for Google

  1. 1. Vision for a Nonprofit Knowledge Graph Andrew Sears Executive Director
  2. 2. My Background    Co-Founded the Internet Telecoms Consortium with David Clark (one of the fathers of the Internet) at MIT in 1996 Consulted as new product architect for St. Paul Venture Capital, Internet startups and Sprint Nonprofit Social Graph Slideshare, January 2012 ◦  Serving as nonprofit founder and Executive Director of TechMission
  3. 3. TechMission History TechMission 3.0 (big data & online ed Christian Social Graph & TechMission 2.0 ( & Nonprofit Web 2.0) TechMission 1.0 (AC4/Digital Divide)
  4. 4. TechMission Programs TechMission City Vision Internships Christian - - ILS Nova GED - Christians in Recovery City Vision College - Addiction Studies - Nonprofit Management - Urban Missions - Masters in Science, Technology, Society & Ministry
  5. 5. Masters of Science, Technology, Society and Ministry Theology of Technology Theology of Work Organizational Systems Capstone Course Emerging Media Appropriate Technology Electives
  6. 6. Purpose of Discussion   Personal connection We see tech trends that could have major implications on TechMission strategy ◦ Trend toward Universal APIs (like Wolfram Language) ◦ Trend toward vertical search  Would rather build on shoulders of giants ◦ Christian Social Graph is subset of Nonprofit Knowledge graph ◦ Want to avoid building something that will be made obsolete by larger initiatives ◦ Want to be able to contribute our data to larger initiatives (as we have with AllforGood) ◦ Want someone like Google to build a Nonprofit Knowledge Graph
  7. 7. Phases of Nonprofit Data  Nonprofit Web 1.0 ◦ Individual websites  Nonprofit Web 2.0 ◦,,,  Nonprofit Data 2.5 (today) ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Nonprofits provide very limited APIs Google’s Knowledge Graph for Nonprofits Governments start providing open data Apps Nonprofit Data 3.0?
  8. 8. Vision for Nonprofit Data 3.0  What if Google created a free data repository and API of data useful for Nonprofits by… ◦ Scrubbing and enhancing data that is useful to Nonprofits from web, public sources and semantic web ◦ Providing an Open API ◦ Promoting a search ecosystem that encourages more open nonprofit data ◦ Providing vertical search capabilities and linked Knowledge Graph data supporting nonprofits
  9. 9. Nonprofit Knowledge Graph Data Types Volunteer Opps Foundations & Grants Jobs Organizations Events Disaster Response Data People Giving Requests Causes/ Social Actions
  10. 10. TechMission’s Focus All Objects of Interest to Nonprofits TechMission: All Objects of Interest to Christian Orgs Nonprofit Knowledge Graph Christian Social Graph
  11. 11. Christian Social Graph API TechMission’s Focus Parachurches 300,000+ Funders & Grants Jobs 15,000+ 10,000+ Content 150,000 items Volunteer Opportunities 10,000+ Christian Social Graph Groups & Events Resumes (People) Churches 300,000 Classified Listings
  12. 12. Nonprofit Knowledge Graph Concept
  13. 13. Knowledge Graph Added April 2013
  14. 14. Proposed Additions
  15. 15. Vertical Sear Nonprofit Da • Jobs • Volunteer • Events
  16. 16. Key Questions for Google What is Google’s next steps for nonprofits in the Knowledge Graph? 2. Will Google provide a competitive response to & Hoovers 1. ◦ Nonprofit Data could fit here (and be free) 3. Will Google provide a competitive response to Wolfram Language? ◦ Nonprofit API could fit within this structure 4. Will Google provide vertical search for jobs (like it has for hotels and flights)? ◦ Nonprofit Jobs and Volunteer Opportunities would fit here 5. How can nonprofits contribute data to Knowledge Graph? ◦ Could be helpful to have an open standard filling holes in or something else? 6. What are Google’s plans for open education, Open EdX,, etc.? YouTube of courses?
  17. 17. Nonprofit Product Roadmap Wishlist Nonprofit Knowledge Graph Sidebar Open Data Submission Standard Nonprofit Vertical Search Google’s Universal API (like Wolfram language) Linkage with Google+ Google Product Google for Nonprofits
  18. 18. Use Cases  Improves nonprofit data ecosystem ◦ Encourages nonprofit data providers to include EIN and other keys to linked data ◦ Needed for linked data between: Volunteer Opps (AllforGood), Organizations, Donate Links, etc. ◦ Promotes open data while still allowing providers like Guidestar to provide more extended data  Apps & Mashups ◦ Refining nonprofit public data from sources like is costly for each organization and could be done once by Google  Improved Nonprofit/For Profit Partnership ◦ For profit companies could more easily integrate nonprofit causes if there were low barriers to entry through Google’s APIs
  19. 19. Appendix: Nonprofit Linked Data Today
  20. 20. Nonprofit Organization Data   USA Providers: Guidestar, NetworkforGood, Charity Navigator, HandsOn Network,, United Way/Truist,,, 211, Problems with Organizational Data ◦ Few use open standards like ◦ Unlinked: Little data has unique organizational identifier needed for linking ◦ Terms of use prohibit third party use of data even when it was compiled from public sources (i.e. taking data provided by governments and then making it proprietary) ◦ Government data is not user-friendly and cannot be easily linked with other data
  21. 21. Volunteer Opportunity Data Providers (USA)  Open = Contributing to Serve.Gov/ ◦ HandsOn Network, AARP,, United Way, Truist, Habitat for Humanity, Service Nation, Universal Giving,, Craigslist, MENTOR, Senior Corps, AmeriCorps, Girl Scouts, YMCA, Up2Us, CatchaFire,, Rock the Vote, Citizen Corps, Red Cross, Samaritan Technologies, Catchafire  Closed = Not Contributing to Serve.Gov/ ◦  Schema Examples ◦ ◦  Problems with Volunteer Opportunity Data ◦ Data not provided with unique identifier that would enable linkages and assist in deduplication
  22. 22. Nonprofit Jobs Data  Jobs Data Providers:,,,,,,,,,,,,,
  23. 23. Organization Property Properties from Thing description image name url Properties from Organization address Expected Type Description Text URL Text URL A short description of the item. URL of an image of the item. The name of the item. URL of the item. PostalAddress aggregateRating AggregateRating Physical address of the item. The overall rating, based on a collection of reviews or ratings, of the item. contactPoints ContactPoint A contact point for a person or organization. email employees Text Person events Event faxNumber Text Email address. People working for this organization. Upcoming or past events associated with this place or organization. The fax number. founders Person A person who founded this organization. foundingDate Date The date that this organization was founded. interactionCount Text location members reviews telephone Place or PostalAddress Person or Organization Review Text A count of a specific user interactions with this item—for example, 20 UserLikes, 5 UserComments, or 300 UserDownloads. The user interaction type should be one of the sub types of UserInteraction. The location of the event or organization. A member of this organization. Review of the item. The telephone number. More specific types: Corporation, EducationalOrganization, GovernmentOrganization, LocalBusiness, NGO, PerformingGroup, SportsTeam
  24. 24. Job Posting Need Volunteer Opportunity Property Properties from Thing description image name url Properties from JobPosting baseSalary benefits datePosted educationRequirements Expected Type Description Text URL Text URL A short description of the item. URL of an image of the item. The name of the item. URL of the item. Number Text Date Text employmentType Text experienceRequirements hiringOrganization incentives industry jobLocation Text Organization Text Text Place occupationalCategory Text qualifications responsibilities Text Text salaryCurrency Text skills Text specialCommitments Text title workHours Text Text The base salary of the job. Description of benefits associated with the job. Publication date for the job posting. Educational background needed for the position. Type of employment (e.g. full-time, part-time, contract, temporary, seasonal, internship). Description of skills and experience needed for the position. Organization offering the job position. Description of bonus and commission compensation aspects of the job. The industry associated with the job position. A (typically single) geographic location associated with the job position. Category or categories describing the job. Use BLS O*NET-SOC taxonomy: Ideally includes textual label and formal code, with the property repeated for each applicable value. Specific qualifications required for this role. Responsibilities associated with this role. The currency (coded using ISO 4217, used for the main salary information in this job posting. Skills required to fulfill this role. Any special commitments associated with this job posting. Valid entries include VeteranCommit, MilitarySpouseCommit, etc. The title of the job. The typical working hours for this job (e.g. 1st shift, night shift, 8am-5pm).
  25. 25. Event Property Properties from Thing description image name url Properties from Event attendees Expected Type Description Text URL Text URL A short description of the item. URL of an image of the item. The name of the item. URL of the item. duration Duration The duration of the item (movie, audio recording, event, etc.) in ISO 8601 date format. endDate Date The end date and time of the event (in ISO 8601 date format). location Place or PostalAddress The location of the event or organization. offers Offer An offer to sell this item—for example, an offer to sell a product, the DVD of a movie, or tickets to an event. performers Person or Organization The main performer or performers of the event—for example, a presenter, musician, or actor. startDate Date The start date and time of the event (in ISO 8601 date format). subEvents Event Events that are a part of this event. For example, a conference event includes many presentations, each are subEvents of the conference. superEvent Event An event that this event is a part of. For example, a collection of individual music performances might each have a music festival as their superEvent. Person or Organization A person attending the event.
  26. 26. Making More Nonprofit Friendly  Organization/NGO Type ◦ Need fields for tax id, charity id, NTEE Code, ICNPO ◦ Tax id and charity id are critical to link other data  Job Type ◦ Consider Volunteer Sub-type of job with special fields (need spec)  Event ◦ Consider service opportunity as event subtype with special fields (need spec)
  27. 27. Semantic Web Standards Aggregators: Freebase, Dbpedia, Zemanta, Kasiba, Calais,… Sparql: global query language for RDF schema & ontology of objects in RDF RDF = data sharing format in XML
  28. 28. Proliferation of Nonprofit APIs                 All for Good Brooklyn Museum Convio CorpWatch DonorsChoose eTapestry FirstGiving Global Giving Kintera Kiva LetGive Piryx Guidestar Charity Navigator Dropcash Global Currents Pitleline                Social Actions Sparked WiserEarth CiviCRM Get Active Member-only Results Plus Blackbaud Institute for Money in State Politics Giveness WiserEarth ChristianVolunteering Let’s Give Piryx Open Aid The Problem: to develop a good nonprofit app you need to aggregate from 5-20 sources, write to 5-20 APIs, and sign 5-20 contracts and terms of use that are often incompatible with each other
  29. 29. Problems/What is missing?  Poor data quality in public data ◦ Need scrubbing and de-duping  No linkages in data types ◦ missing organization IDs in most data ◦ How to link volunteer opportunities with org  Lacking ecosystem to encourage openness of nonprofit data ◦ Current nonprofit business models are incentivized to keep most data closed   Too many Nonprofit APIs Summary: the pieces are there, but it’s a mess!
  30. 30. References  Defining the Nonprofit Sector: A Crossnational Analysis ◦ Crosswalk of National Standards: cC&pg=PA90&dq=icnpo+ntee+crosswalk  THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS: ICNPOREVISION 1, 1996 ◦  Wolfram Language ◦