Cooperative learning


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Cooperative learning

  1. 1. You cannot teach a man anything. You can only help him discover it within himself. Galileo
  2. 2. <ul><li>CL is a teaching strategy involving students’ participation in group learning that emphasizes positive interaction. It is a strategy by which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, are engaged in learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The participation of every student in the group and cooperation among group members is considered important. The students are rewarded for their individual and collective efforts . </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There is a difference between simply having students work in a group and structuring groups of students to work cooperatively. Putting students into groups does not necessarily gain a cooperative relationship; it has to be structured and managed by a teacher or professor. </li></ul><ul><li>CL is actually a generic term that refers to numerous methods for organizing and conducting classroom instruction . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It is only under certain conditions that cooperative efforts may be expected to be more productive than competitive and individual efforts. These conditions are: </li></ul><ul><li>● Clearly perceived positive interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>● Considerable motivational (face-to-face) interaction </li></ul><ul><li>● Clearly perceived individual accountability and personal responsibility to achieve the group’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>● Frequent use of the relevant interpersonal and small-group skills </li></ul><ul><li>● Frequent and regular analysis of the functioning of the group, to improve its future effectiveness </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Three important factors are that CL is clearly based on theory, validated by research, and operationalized into clear procedures that educators can use. </li></ul><ul><li>This combination of theory, research, and practice makes CL a powerful learning procedure. CL can have far reaching results when properly implemented. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The results show that students who have opportunities to work collaboratively, learn faster and more efficiently, have greater retention, and feel more positive about the learning experience. Needless to say, this is not to say that students can just be put into a group and assigned a project to complete. There are very specific methods to assure the success of group work, and it is essential that both teachers and students are aware of them.   </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>It is a way for students to learn essential interpersonal life-skills and to develop the ability to work collaboratively- - a skill now greatly in demand in the workplace. It is a way for students to take turns with different roles such as facilitator, reporter, recorder , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In a cooperative group, every student has a specific task, everyone must be involved in the learning or project, The success of the group depends on the successful work of every individual.  </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>A majority of CL strategies have an in-built provision for decision-making by the learner while he/she works on his/her assigned task. Choices made by the individuals are implemented by the group and therefore, usually only the choices aimed at the common good are implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the learners learn to consider the common good when making decisions and choices. Making decisions with a consideration for the common good is a step towards a sustainable future. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Students don’t only learn the material, but they may learn better because they have more time to contribute and discuss the material. Shy students may feel more at ease in sharing thoughts and ideas in small groups than they would with a whole class. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful groupings of students can foster more social& cooperative behavior which is a very useful skill in many real life situations </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>There are a few ways that teachers may help build cooperative learning environments that are successful. Since individual accountability is still important, teachers may choose to give both team and individual tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Grading that can be partly based on group work and partly based on individual performance can help allay the fears of students who would typically perform better outside of a group. This includes some gifted students, who may not always benefit in cooperative learning situations, and may feel that lower levels of academic performance on the part of the group will negatively impact grade. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The future of the world depends on the constructive and competent management of world interdependence as well as interdependence in family, work, community, & societal environments. Students who have had 12-20 years of cooperative learning & who have had opportunities to work cooperatively with students who vary in ability, ethnicity, gender, and so forth will be better able to build positively interdependent relationships than will students who have had 12-20 years of competitive and individualistic learning. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Teachers also need to be aware of the potential pitfalls of students who may not be able to perform at the level of most other students due to  learning disabilities   or to behavioral problems. </li></ul><ul><li>In a cooperative learning situation, it should not be the group’s responsibility to police other members of the group on a regular basis. A person who cannot make a significant contribution to the group may need a different learning environment. One person’s failure to stay on pace with the group can sink a whole team if most grades are based on team performance. This doesn’t mean that a child with learning disabilities can’t work well in cooperative learning classes, but teachers need to consider how to best place these students so that they will contribute rather than detract from other learners. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>There can be great benefit to CL instruction. There is much to be said for the idea that students may make excellent teachers to each other. Clearly defining the tasks of a group help to reinforce this. If students can’t leave an activity until all group members comprehend it, this may be an incredibly effective method for reinforcing class material. Students do have to care how they and their group members perform, and this may be achieved by receiving group grades on certain projects. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Considering the generalist nature of CL and its potential for use across the curriculum, CL should be included in the educational system. </li></ul><ul><li>To be effective, CL needs, over and above inclusion in the syllabus, appropriate changes in the evaluation methods and in teacher education curricula to be made simultaneously. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Inserting exemplary CL action links in the textbooks that provide details like the objectives, prerequisites, procedures of implementation and assessment methods. These details need to be included till the teachers master the basics. </li></ul><ul><li>Arranging in- service and pre-service training of teachers in CL. While many different CL methods are being advocated and used, educators need to know the research basis for various CL methods about the variety of techniques, their characteristics, the procedures of implementation, their effectiveness in specific conditions like subjects, scholastic level, learner groups, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of appropriate assessment techniques for CL outcomes. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>“ The only thing that will redeem mankind is  cooperation . ”   </li></ul><ul><li>Bertrand Russell </li></ul>