Ethics, Bioethics, and Moral Reasoning:                                 How to Think Well in a Complex WorldJonathan Beeve...
What are we doing?1.   Personal, Societal, and Professional Ethics2.   Ethics vs. RCR3.   Bioethics4.   Arguments and Mora...
What is Ethics?1. Personal, Societal, and Professional Ethics           What is ethics?              the systematic study ...
What is RCR?  2. Ethics vs. RCR                   RCR vs. ethics educationRCR = Responsible Conduct         Ethics Educati...
What is RCR?   2. Ethics vs. RCR                           RCR vs. ethics education                           Role of phil...
What is Bioethics?3. Bioethics      Hellegers:      1. Rights and duties of patients and health professionals      2. Righ...
Why care?3. Bioethics               df. Bioethics: The proactive study of the relationship between               biotechno...
Why care? © 2012 Jonathan Beever
What issues?3. Bioethics           • Animals                 •   Health           • Cloning                 •   Personaliz...
Why Reason?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning                         ARGUMENT – a set of statements (or propositions)      ...
Why Reason?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning             Are ethical arguments of the same sort as other arguments?        ...
How to Decide?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning                                                                        Top-...
How to Decide?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning                                                                            ...
How to Decide?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning                                                                            ...
What to Decide?5. Applying Moral Reasoning               1. Pharmacogenomic testing               2. End-of-life care for ...
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J.Beever Purdue University - Bioethics

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  • Potter, Van Rensselaer. (1971).Bioethics: Bridge to the Future. NewYorK: Prentice-Hall.
  • Willful Modulation of Brain Activity in Disorders of ConsciousnessMartin M. Monti, Ph.D., Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, M.Sc., Martin R. Coleman, Ph.D., Melanie Boly, M.D., John D. Pickard, F.R.C.S., F.Med.Sci., LuabaTshibanda, M.D., Adrian M. Owen, Ph.D., and Steven Laureys, M.D., Ph.D.N Engl J Med 2010; 362:579-589February 18, 2010.Proc NatlAcadSci U S A. 1980 December; 77(12): 7380–7384.Genetic transformation of mouse embryos by microinjection of purified DNA.J W Gordon, G A Scangos, D J Plotkin, J A Barbosa, and F H Ruddle.Springer, J.A., J. Beever, N. Morar, J. Sprague, M. Kane. Ethics, Provacy, and the Future of Genetic Information in Healthcare Information Assurance and Security. In Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. M. Dark ed. 2010. ISBN: 978-1-61692-245-0 (hardcover)
  • J.Beever Purdue University - Bioethics

    1. 1. Ethics, Bioethics, and Moral Reasoning: How to Think Well in a Complex WorldJonathan Beever, Purdue University Department of Philosophy
    2. 2. What are we doing?1. Personal, Societal, and Professional Ethics2. Ethics vs. RCR3. Bioethics4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning5. Applying Moral Reasoning © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    3. 3. What is Ethics?1. Personal, Societal, and Professional Ethics What is ethics? the systematic study of the coherence and consistency of our moral beliefs. moral beliefs = our intuitions concerning right and wrong, good and bad, just and unjust. The Subject Society Intuitions? … Professions © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    4. 4. What is RCR? 2. Ethics vs. RCR RCR vs. ethics educationRCR = Responsible Conduct Ethics Educationof Research - Education in moral- training in legal codes of reasoning appropriate behavior - “how to think critically- “how not to get sued” and ethically” model models © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    5. 5. What is RCR? 2. Ethics vs. RCR RCR vs. ethics education Role of philosophy and policy in science education and moral education The Hastings Center The need (NIH and NSF) and The IU Center for BioethicsNIH Guide 23.23 required that applications for The responsible and ethical conduct ofinstitutional research training grants lacking a plan for research (RCR) is critical for excellence, as well asinstruction in responsible conduct of research be public trust, in science and engineering.returned without review… (NIH 1994) Consequently, education in RCR is considered essential in the preparation of future scientists and engineers. (NSF 2009) © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    6. 6. What is Bioethics?3. Bioethics Hellegers: 1. Rights and duties of patients and health professionals 2. Rights and duties of research subjects and researchers 3. Formulation of public policy guidelines for clinical care and biomedical research Potter: 1. long-range environmental concerns 2. Prevention, not just therapy 3. Search for wisdom © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    7. 7. Why care?3. Bioethics df. Bioethics: The proactive study of the relationship between biotechnologies and “societal ethics,” or our codified moral beliefs. © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    8. 8. Why care? © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    9. 9. What issues?3. Bioethics • Animals • Health • Cloning • Personalized Medicine • Biotechnologies • Nanotechnologies • Environment • Genomic revolution • Energy and • Genetic testing Climate • Stem Cell research • Euthanasia • Policy issues • Et cetera… © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    10. 10. Why Reason?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning ARGUMENT – a set of statements (or propositions) such that one of the statements is supposed to be supported by the others.Deductive – Inductive – Abductive – hypotheticalnecessary inference probable inference inference from a fact to thefrom population to from sample to truth of a premise.sample. population.1. All dice in this bag are A’s; 1. All dice in this particular 1. All dice in this bag are A’s;2. all dice in this particular random sample are A’s; 2. all dice in this particular randomrandom sample are taken from 2. all dice in this particular random sample are A’s;this bag; sample are taken from this bag; 3. therefore, all dice in this particular3. therefore, all dice in this 3. therefore, all dice in this bag are random sample are taken from thisparticular random sample are A’s. bag.A’s. © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    11. 11. Why Reason?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning Are ethical arguments of the same sort as other arguments? Does moral reasoning work like other reasoning? (what are we reasoning about?) Descriptive vs. Normative claims Taxonomy of Ethical Theories (non-exclusive) Deontological Consequentialist Pragmatic Rene Descartes Jeremy Bentham C.S. Peirce Immanuel Kant John Stuart Mill James Dewey John Rawls G.E. Moore Thomas Scanlon Peter Singer FMI – see http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/reasoning-moral/ © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    12. 12. How to Decide?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning Top-down Principlism: 1. Autonomy 2. Non-maleficence 3. Beneficence Moral 4. Justice Decision FMI – see Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    13. 13. How to Decide?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning Top-down Principlism: 1. Autonomy 2. Non-maleficence 3. Beneficence Moral 4. Justice Decision Bottom-up Casuistry FMI – see Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    14. 14. How to Decide?4. Arguments and Moral Reasoning Top-down Principlism: 1. Autonomy 2. Non-maleficence 3. Beneficence Moral 4. Justice Decision Reflexive Equilibrium Bottom-up Casuistry FMI – see Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics © 2012 Jonathan Beever
    15. 15. What to Decide?5. Applying Moral Reasoning 1. Pharmacogenomic testing 2. End-of-life care for PVS patient 3. Animal Testing on GMO Mice 4. …. How are we to best apply ethical theory and moral reasoning to real-world cases? Questions? Jonathan Beever, beeverj@purdue.edu © 2012 Jonathan Beever

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