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# Hypothesis laws theories

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• Artifatuual: a product of artificial character (as in a scientific test) due usually to extraneous (as human) agency \n
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• ### Hypothesis laws theories

1. 1. Hypothesis, Laws, TheoriesThanks to T Landry
2. 2. Hypothesis: Thisis an educated guess based upon observation. It is a rational explanation of a single event or phenomenon based upon what is observed, but which has not been proved. Mosthypotheses can be supported or refuted by experimentation or continued observation.
3. 3. Scientiﬁc Law Thisis a statement of fact meant to describe, in concise terms, an action or set of actions. It is generally accepted to be true and universal, and can sometimes be expressed in terms of a single mathematical equation. Scientiﬁc laws must be simple, true, universal, and absolute.
4. 4. Scientiﬁc LawA scientiﬁc law must always apply under the same conditions, and implies a causal relationship between its elements. Thelaw must be conﬁrmed and broadly agreed upon through the process of inductive reasoning. However, factual and well-conﬁrmed statements like "Mercury is liquid at standard temperature and pressure" are considered to be too speciﬁc to qualify as scientiﬁc laws.
5. 5. Examples of Laws Law of gravity Newtons laws of motion the laws of thermodynamics Boyles law of gases the law of conservation of mass and energy, Hook’s law of elasticity.
6. 6. Examples of Laws Law of gravity Newtons laws of motion the laws of thermodynamics Boyles law of gases the law of conservation of mass and energy, Hook’s law of elasticity.
7. 7. Examples of Laws Law of gravity Newtons laws of motion the laws of thermodynamics Boyles law of gases the law of conservation of mass and energy, Hook’s law of elasticity.
8. 8. Examples of Laws Law of gravity Newtons laws of motion the laws of thermodynamics Boyles law of gases Hookes law accurately the law of conservation of mass models the physical and energy, properties of common mechanical springs for small Hook’s law of elasticity. changes in length
9. 9. Laws Come With Speciﬁc Conditions Ohms law only applies to constant currents Newtons law of universal gravitation only applies in weak gravitational ﬁelds earlylaws of aerodynamics such as Bernoullis principle do not apply in case of compressible ﬂow such as occurs in transonic and supersonic ﬂight
10. 10. Theories A theory, in the scientiﬁc sense of the word, is an analytic structure designed to explain a set of empirical observations. Theories are constructed to explain, predict, and master phenomena. A scientiﬁc theory does two things: it identiﬁes this set of distinct observations as a class of phenomena makes assertions about the underlying reality that brings about or affects this class.
11. 11. Theories in Science – Logical Criteria1. a simple unifying idea that postulates nothingunnecessary ("Occams Razor")2. logically consistent3. logically falsiﬁable (i.e., cases must exist in whichthe theory can be imagined to be invalid)4. clearly limited by explicit boundary conditions sothat it is clear whether or not particular data are orare not relevant to veriﬁcation or falsiﬁcation
12. 12. Theories in Science – Empirical CriteriaA scientiﬁc theory must:1. be empirically testable or lead to predictions orretrodictions that are testable2. actually make veriﬁed predictions and/orretrodictions3. involve reproducible results4. provide criteria for the interpretation of data asfactual, artifactual, anomalous or irrelevant
13. 13. Theories in Science – Sociological CriteriaA scientiﬁc theory must:1. resolve recognized problems, paradoxes, and/oranomalies irresolvable on the basis of preexistingtheories2. pose a new set of scientiﬁc problems upon whichscientists may work3. suggest a "paradigm" or problem solving model tohelp resolve these new problems
14. 14. Theories in Science – Historical CriteriaA scientiﬁc theory must:1. meet or surpass all of the criteria set by itspredecessors or demonstrate that any abandonedcriteria are artifactual2. be able to explain all of the data gathered underprevious relevant theories in terms either of fact orartifact (no anomalies allowed)3. be consistent with all preexisting ancillary theoriesthat already have established scientiﬁc validity
15. 15. Laws vs theories Thebiggest difference between a law and a theory is that a theory is much more complex and dynamic.A law describes a single action, whereas a theory explains an entire group of related phenomena.A law differs from a scientiﬁc theory in that it does not posit a mechanism or explanation of phenomena: it is merely a distillation of the results of repeated observation.
16. 16. How come this class is called Theory ofKnowledge? There’s no theory, is there?
17. 17. Other uses of the word. Fieldsof study are sometimes named "theory" because their basis is some initial set of assumptions describing the ﬁelds approach to a subject matter:  Music theory  Literary theory  Game theory
18. 18. Theories NOT Theorems Theories are distinct from theorems: theoremsare derived deductively from axioms (in mathematics) or theories (in science) according to a formal system of rules
19. 19. Right or Wrong? Theories are abstract and conceptual, and to this end they are never considered right or wrong. Instead, they are supported or challenged by observations in the world. They are rigorously tentative, meaning that they are proposed as true but expected to satisfy careful examination to account for the possibility of faulty inference or incorrect observation.
20. 20. Falsiﬁed, Revised, Shelved Sometimes theories are falsiﬁed, meaning that an explicit set of observations contradicts some fundamental assumption of the theory More often theories are revised to conform to new observations, by restricting the class of phenomena the theory applies to or changing the assertions made. Sometimes a theory is set aside by scholars because there is no way to examine its assertions analytically.
21. 21. Examples of Scientiﬁc TheoriesAstronomy: Big Bang TheoryBiology: Cell theory — Evolution — Germ theoryChemistry: Atomic theory — Kinetic theory of gasesClimatology: Theory of Global Climate Change (due to anthropogenic activity)Geology: Plate tectonicsPhysics: Theory of relativity, Quantum ﬁeld theory, Electro-magnetic Theory
22. 22. Obsolete TheoriesA superseded, or obsolete,scientiﬁc theory is a scientiﬁctheory that was once commonlyaccepted, but that is no longerconsidered the most completedescription of reality by amainstream scientiﬁcconsensus; or a falsiﬁabletheory which has been shown tobe false.
23. 23. Biology Miasma theory of disease A representation of the cholera epidemic of the nineteenth century depicts the spread of the disease in the form of poisonous air.
24. 24. Biology Theory of the four bodily humors - discredited by Rhazes, Avenzoar, Ibn al-Naﬁs, Ibn al-Lubudi and William Harvey The four temperaments (Clockwise from top right; choleric; melancholic; sanguine; phlegmatic).
25. 25. Geology Continental drift was superseded by plate tectonics  Plate tectonics, a modern update of the old ideas of Wegener about "plowing" continents, accommodates continental motion through the mechanism of seaﬂoor spreading.
26. 26. Progression of atomic theory Plum pudding model of the atom - assuming the protons and electrons were mixed together in a single mass Rutherford model of the atom with an impenetrable nucleus orbited by electrons. Bohr model with quantized orbits Electron cloud model following the invention of Quantum Mechanics in 1925 and the eventual atomic orbital models derived from the quantum A schematic representation of the mechanical solution to the hydrogen Plum pudding model of the atom. atom.
27. 27. Progression of atomic theory Plum pudding model of the atom - assuming the protons and electrons were mixed together in a single mass Rutherford model of the atom with an impenetrable nucleus orbited by electrons. Bohr model with quantized orbits Electron cloud model following the invention of Quantum Mechanics in 1925 and the eventual atomic orbital models derived from the quantum mechanical solution to the hydrogen Rutherford Model atom.
28. 28. Progression of atomic theory Plum pudding model of the atom - assuming the protons and electrons were mixed together in a single mass Rutherford model of the atom with an impenetrable nucleus orbited by electrons. Bohr model with quantized orbits Electron cloud model following the invention of Quantum Mechanics in 1925 and the eventual atomic orbital models derived from the quantum mechanical solution to the hydrogen Rutherford Bohr Model atom.
29. 29. Progression of atomic theory Plum pudding model of the atom - assuming the protons and electrons were mixed together in a single mass Rutherford model of the atom with an impenetrable nucleus orbited by electrons. Bohr model with quantized orbits Electron cloud model following the invention of Quantum Mechanics in 1925 and the eventual atomic orbital models derived from the quantum mechanical solution to the hydrogen atom.
30. 30. Physics SteadyState was replaced by an expanding universe model starting with the Big Bang Newtonian mechanics was extended by Theory of Relativity and quantum mechanics. It is still the standard tool in engineering and physics at atomic or larger scales and velocities not approaching the speed of light.