Historyseeks to study and explain significant past events on the basis of currently existing evidence
why study history?• to know what happened• sense of identity• defense against propaganda...get to the “truth”• enrich our understanding of human nature• to understand the context of art/music• to make meaning of the present
bias... top choice: choice of topic influenced by their current preoccupations confirmation bias: evidence that supports their own casenational: pre-existing cultural and political prejudices
HistoriographyFuray and Salevouris (1988) define historiography as"the study of the way history has been and is written— the history of historical writing... When you studyhistoriography you do not study the events of thepast directly, but the changing interpretations of thoseevents in the works of individual historians."
Great Manhistory is determined by great individuals
“Economic history is the study of economiesor economic phenomena in the past. Analysisin economic history is undertaken using acombination of historical methods,statistical methods, and byapplying economic theory to historicalsituations and institutions.”History is determined by economic factors.History is determined by economic factors.
“Feminist history refers to the re-reading ofhistory from a female perspective. The goal offeminist history is to explore and illuminate thefemale viewpoint of history through rediscovery offemale writers, artists, philosophers, etc., in orderto recover and demonstrate the significance ofwomens voices and choices in the past.”
“Marxist or historical materialisthistoriography is a school of historiographyinfluenced by Marxism. The chief tenets of Marxisthistoriography are the centrality of social class andeconomic constraints in determining historicaloutcomes.Marxist historiography has made contributions tothe history of the working class, oppressednationalities, and the methodology ofhistory from below.”.”
Environmental history is the study of humaninteraction with the natural world over time. Incontrast to other historical disciplines, itemphasizes the active role nature plays ininfluencing human affairs. Environmental historiansstudy how humans both shape their environmentand are shaped by it.
Psychohistory is the study of thepsychological motivations of historicalevents. It combines the insights ofpsychotherapy with the researchmethodology of the social sciences tounderstand the emotional origin of the socialand political behavior of groups and nations,past and present.”