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  1. 1. Co_m_n_cati_n is the simultaneous s_aring and cre_ting of mea_ing through huma_ symbolic action.<br />Com_uni_atio_ in a broad se_se is the sharing of expe_ience – we are all indi_idu_ls who are the pro_ _ct of our natur_ and our experiences.<br />Unique to hu_an communication is the sup_rior ability of humans to create and to use sy_bols. The use of symbolic lan_uage is what separates the human from the animal. A symbol is something used for or regarded as represent_ _g something else. A symbol stands for something else, represents something, but is not the thing itself – the word “table” is not an actual table. The meaning of words is a matter of so_ial agreement, of consensus – therefore it is arbitrary.<br />Com_un_ca_ion is a proce_s – because it involves a series of actio_s that has no beginni_g or end and is constan_ly changing.<br />C_mm_nica_ion is a sy_tem – a combination of parts interdepe_dently acting to form a w_ole (human body) – fight at home, in workplace and in classroom, in traffic, etc.<br />Commu_ication is both in_eractional and tran_actional; <br />In_eraction – an exchange of communication in which people take turns se_ding and receivi_g messages (phone conversation). <br />Tra_saction – extends the concept of intera_tion to include simultaneous acti_ns<br />Com_unication can be intentio_al or u_intentional: <br />Inte_tional – message that is purp_sely sent to a specific rec_iver. <br />Unintenti_nal – message that was not inte_ed to be sent or was not intended for the individu_l who received it.<br />Essential Comp_nents of Commu_ication:<br />sou_ce, mess_ge, interfer_nce, cha_nel, receiv_r, f_edback, environ_ent, contex_ and tim_ <br />Four roles of Sour_e: <br /><ul><li>Determine meanin_
  2. 2. E_coding – translating thoughts and meanings into words, sounds, physical expressions
  3. 3. Sendi_g
  4. 4. Reac_ing to messa_e</li></ul>Mes_age – the stimulus produced by the source – comprised of wo_ds, gram_ar, organization, physical appearance, bod_ movement, voice, aspects of the person’s personality, self-concept, personal style; Messages can be verb_l or non_erbal, i_tentional or unintentio_al. So, the four types of messages are: intenti_nal verbal, unintentional v_rbal, intention_l nonverbal, unintentional no_verbal.<br />I_terference – anything that changes the mea_ing of an intended mes_age, reduces or distorts the clarity, accuracy, meaning, understanding or retention of a message. <br />Kinds of Interferences: External, Physic_l, Inte_nal, Psycholog_cal<br />Cha_nel – the route <br />Receiv_r – decodes messages; simultaneously source and receiver <br />Feed_ack – the response the receiver send back to the source.<br />Feedbac_ is the return to you of beh_vior you generated. Feedback reinforces some behaviors and extinguishes others.<br />Environ_ent – the psychological and physical surroundings in which com_unication occurs – encompasses the at_itudes, feelin_s, perceptions, and relationships of the communicators as well as characteristics of the location in which communication takes place – size, color, arrangement, decoration, temperature of room.<br />Co_text – communication does not occur in a vacuum – the number of people, the type of communication, and the situation in which the communic_tion occurs – each context affects what we say and how we say it, and vice versa.<br />T_me - communication progresses through time, it is not stati_ – the communicators can never return to the point at which they started. The relationship undergoes change as a result of each interactio_.<br />Why stud_ communication? <br />Effe_tive communication is critical to succe_sful living – classroom, workplace, personal life; saves time, makes life more enjoyable, allows people to establish and maintain relationships successfully and facilitates accomplishing personal go_ls.<br />Communicati_n is effecti_e when the stimulus as it was initiated and intended by the source, corresponds closely to the sti_ulus as it is perceived and responded to by the receiv_r. In one sense, when what you say is heard, perceived, understood, processed and acted upon, the way you wanted it.<br />Spee_h is the act, faculty or power of speaki_g; oral communi_ation; the ability to express<br />one’s thoug_ts and emoti_ns by sounds and gesture.<br />Phonetic transcripti_n is necessary, because the s_elling of a word does not tell you how you should pron_unce it. Pho_etic transcriptions are usually written in the _nternational _honetic _lphabet, in which each E_glish sound has a special symbol.<br />Sp_ech com_unication deals with inter_ction of communicators through the use of la_guage. Language consists of systematized v_cal sounds made in the mou_h, nose, and th_oat, which are organized into words and phrases for communic_tion.<br />In the produc_ion of sounds, the air stream is initiated in the l_ngs and comes out through the mout_h or nos_. It is modified and controlled by the _ocal apparatus whose parts are either mov_ble or starionar_. The movabl_ parts include the _ips, j_w, tongu_, velum, and the vocal cords. The staio_ary parts are the te_th, alve_lar ridge, hard p_alate, and back wall of the pharyn_. If one can master the types of m_vements of the lips and tongue, he can produce the sounds of any lang_age.<br />The _nglish alp_abet has 2_ letters: 5 _owels and _1 con_sonants. Each vowel or combination of vowels represents a vowel so_nd. A consonant or a combination of consonats, likewise, represents a c_nsonant sou_d. <br />Sp_ech Arti_ulation<br /><ul><li>The smallest unit of speech sound is called a ph_neme.
  5. 5. One or more phonemes combine to form a syll_ble.
  6. 6. One or more syll_bles combine to form a word.
  7. 7. Phonemes can be divided into two groups: vo_els and cons_nants.
  8. 8. V_wels are always voi_ed. Conson_nts may be voiced or u_voiced.
  9. 9. A diphth_ng is a combination of tw_ or more vowels into one phone_e.
  10. 10. Consonants may be classified according to their manner of articulation as plos_ve, fric_tive, nasal, liquid, and sem_vowel.