Biology Midterm Review

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Biology questions with answers from the Biology test bank.

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Biology Midterm Review

  1. 1. Biology Midterm Review
  2. 2. <ul><li>You do not have to write the questions down as I will post this on www.slideshare.com . </li></ul><ul><li>You should write down the number of the question and try to answer each question. </li></ul><ul><li>The correct answer will be provided. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1 <ul><li>1. Molecules of ____________________ inside cells encode information to direct their growth and development . </li></ul>
  4. 4. DNA
  5. 5. 2 <ul><li>The study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the nonliving part of their environment is called ____________________. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ecology
  7. 7. 3 <ul><li>All cells have the same basic ____________________. </li></ul>
  8. 8. structure
  9. 9. 4 <ul><li>____________________ is the sum of all chemical reactions carried out in an organism. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Metabolism
  11. 11. 5 <ul><li>To function properly, all living things maintain a constant internal environment through the process of ____________________. </li></ul>
  12. 12. homeostasis
  13. 13. 6 <ul><li>Genetic engineers are transplanting plant ____________________ into other plants to create crops that are resistant to frost damage. </li></ul>
  14. 14. genes or DNA
  15. 15. 7 <ul><li>Frogs, toads, and salamanders are all examples of ____________________. </li></ul>
  16. 16. amphibians
  17. 17. 8 <ul><li>An educated guess, or ____________________, may be tested by experimentation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. hypothesis
  19. 19. 9 <ul><li>In a controlled experiment, the ____________________ group is the group that receives some type of experimental treatment. </li></ul>
  20. 20. experimental or the manipulated
  21. 21. 10 <ul><li>A unifying explanation for a broad range of observations is a(n) ____________________. </li></ul>
  22. 22. theory
  23. 23. 11 <ul><li>A(n) ____________________ is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. </li></ul>
  24. 24. molecule
  25. 25. 12 <ul><li>The attraction between oppositely charged ions results in the formation of a(n) ____________________ _______________. </li></ul>
  26. 26. ionic bond
  27. 27. 13 <ul><li>Substances with a pH lower than 7 are ____________________. </li></ul>
  28. 28. acidic
  29. 29. 14 <ul><li>Long chains of nucleotides are called ____________________ ____________________. </li></ul>
  30. 30. nucleic acids
  31. 31. 15 <ul><li>The starting materials for chemical reactions are called ____________________, while the new substances that are formed are called ____________________. </li></ul>
  32. 32. reactants, products
  33. 33. 16 <ul><li>The energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called ____________________ ____________________. </li></ul>
  34. 34. activation energy
  35. 35. 17 <ul><li>The portion of an enzyme molecule into which a specific substrate can fit is called the ____________________ ____________________. </li></ul>
  36. 36. active site
  37. 37. 18 <ul><li>Scientists use ____________________ units when taking measurements. </li></ul>
  38. 38. metric or SI
  39. 39. 19 <ul><li>____________________ is a measure of the clarity of an image. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Resolution
  41. 41. 20 <ul><li>While a light microscope uses light to visualize a specimen, electron microscopes use an ____________________ beam and a vacuum chamber. </li></ul>
  42. 42. electron
  43. 43. 21 <ul><li>The basic unit of structure and function in an organism is the ____________________. </li></ul>
  44. 44. cell
  45. 45. 22 <ul><li>Modern prokaryotes are generally known as ____________________. </li></ul>
  46. 46. bacteria
  47. 47. 23 <ul><li>Scientists think that ____________________ cells evolved about 1.5 billion years ago. </li></ul>
  48. 48. eukaryotic
  49. 49. 24 <ul><li>A phospholipid is a molecule with a(n) ____________________ head. </li></ul>
  50. 50. polar
  51. 51. 25 <ul><li>Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ____________________ embedded on its surface. </li></ul>
  52. 52. ribosomes
  53. 53. 26 <ul><li>The ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth is the ____________________. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Sun
  55. 55. 27 <ul><li>Organisms that harvest energy from sunlight or inorganic substances in order to make food molecules are called ____________________. </li></ul>
  56. 56. autotrophs
  57. 57. 28 <ul><li>When a phosphate group is removed from an ATP molecule, energy is ____________________. </li></ul>
  58. 58. released
  59. 59. 29 <ul><li>The electron transport chain produces molecules that temporarily store ____________________ in the cell. </li></ul>
  60. 60. energy
  61. 61. 30 <ul><li>The transfer of carbon dioxide to organic compounds is called carbon dioxide ____________________. </li></ul>
  62. 62. fixation
  63. 63. 31 <ul><li>Electrons that provide the energy for the production of most of a cell’s ATP are carried to the electron transport chain by ____________________ and ____________________ molecules. </li></ul>
  64. 64. NADH, FADH2
  65. 65. 32 <ul><li>Hydrogen ions combine with electrons and oxygen forming ____________________ at the end of the electron transport chain. </li></ul>
  66. 66. water
  67. 67. 33 <ul><li>____________________ ____________________ is the process by which bacteria split asexually into two identical organisms. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Binary fission
  69. 69. 34 <ul><li>The DNA in eukaryotic cells is packaged into structures that are called ____________________. </li></ul>
  70. 70. chromosomes
  71. 71. 35 <ul><li>In humans, the genotype XX results in a ____________________. </li></ul>
  72. 72. female
  73. 73. 36 <ul><li>Somatic cells containing two sets of 23 chromosomes are always ____________________. </li></ul>
  74. 74. diploid
  75. 75. 37 <ul><li>The sequence of events that occurs in a cell from one mitotic division to the next is called the ____________________ ____________________. </li></ul>
  76. 76. cell cycle
  77. 77. 38 <ul><li>The cell cycle is controlled in eukaryotes at three principal ____________________. </li></ul>
  78. 78. checkpoints
  79. 79. 39 <ul><li>“ Cables” made of microtubules that extend from the poles of a cell to the centromeres during cell division are called ____________________ ____________________. </li></ul>
  80. 80. spindle fibers
  81. 81. 40 <ul><li>Chromosomes coil up and become visible during ____________________. </li></ul>
  82. 82. prophase
  83. 83. 41 <ul><li>After a new nuclear membrane forms during telophase of mitosis or meiosis, the ____________________ divides, resulting in two cells. </li></ul>
  84. 84. cytoplasm
  85. 85. 42 <ul><li>The four haploid cells formed in the male at the end of meiosis II develop a tail and are called ____________________. </li></ul>
  86. 86. sperm
  87. 87. 43 <ul><li>A spore is a haploid reproductive cell produced by ____________________. </li></ul>
  88. 88. meiosis
  89. 89. 44 <ul><li>The diploid phase in the life cycle of plants is called the ____________________. </li></ul>
  90. 90. sporophyte
  91. 91. 45 <ul><li>The patterns that Mendel discovered form the basis of ____________________, the branch of biology that deals with heredity. </li></ul>
  92. 92. genetics
  93. 93. 46 <ul><li>A(n) ____________________ cross is a cross that involves one pair of contrasting traits. </li></ul>
  94. 94. monohybrid
  95. 95. 47 <ul><li>Different forms of a particular gene are called ____________________. </li></ul>
  96. 96. alleles
  97. 97. 48 <ul><li>The external appearance of an organism is its ____________________. </li></ul>
  98. 98. phenotype
  99. 99. 49 <ul><li>In pea plants, tallness ( T ) is dominant to shortness ( t ). Crosses between plants with these traits can be analyzed using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below. </li></ul><ul><li>TtT12t34 </li></ul><ul><li>49. Refer to the illustration on the board. Box 2 and box ____________________ in the Punnett square represent plants that would be heterozygous for the trait for tallness. </li></ul>
  100. 100. 3
  101. 101. 50 <ul><li>Identifying patterns of inheritance within a family over several generations is possible by studying a diagram called a(n) ____________________. </li></ul>
  102. 102. pedigree
  103. 103. 51 <ul><li>A genetic disorder resulting in defective blood clotting is ____________________. </li></ul>
  104. 104. hemophilia
  105. 105. 52 <ul><li>Viruses that infect bacteria are called ____________________. </li></ul>
  106. 106. bacteriophages
  107. 107. 53 <ul><li>Due to the strict pairing of nitrogen bases in DNA molecules, the two strands are said to be ____________________ to each other. </li></ul>
  108. 108. complementary
  109. 109. 54 <ul><li>The circular DNA molecules in prokaryotes usually contain ____________________ replication forks during replication, while linear eukaryotic DNA contains many more. </li></ul>
  110. 110. two
  111. 111. 55 <ul><li>The process by which a foreign gene is replicated by insertion into a bacterium is called ____________________ ____________________. </li></ul>
  112. 112. gene cloning
  113. 113. 56 <ul><li>A large number of genetically identical cells grown from a single cell are called ____________________. </li></ul>
  114. 114. clones
  115. 115. 57 <ul><li>Transferring normal human genes into human cells that lack them is called ____________________ ____________________. </li></ul>
  116. 116. gene therapy
  117. 117. 58 <ul><li>Crop plants have recently been developed that are resistant to the chemical ____________________, a powerful weedkiller. </li></ul>
  118. 118. glyphosate
  119. 119. 59 <ul><li>Biologists have introduced extra copies of the genes that code for ____________________ ____________________ into the chromosomes of cows and hogs to create leaner, faster-growing animals. </li></ul>
  120. 120. growth hormone
  121. 121. 60 <ul><li>The study of radioactive decay in rocks indicates that the Earth is about ____________________ years old. </li></ul>
  122. 122. 4.5 billion
  123. 123. 61 <ul><li>By determining the number of half-lives that have passed since the formation of a rock containing radioisotopes and their stable daughter elements, scientists are able to determine the approximate ____________________ of the rock. </li></ul>
  124. 124. age
  125. 125. 62 <ul><li>Cyanobacteria produced the ____________________ that is now present in our atmosphere. </li></ul>
  126. 126. oxygen
  127. 127. 63 <ul><li>Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own ____________________. </li></ul>
  128. 128. DNA
  129. 129. 64 <ul><li>Having more than one cell is known as ____________________. </li></ul>
  130. 130. multicellularity
  131. 131. 65 <ul><li>The three atoms shown in the diagram make up a molecule of _________________. </li></ul>
  132. 132. ozone
  133. 133. 66 <ul><li>Flying insects carry ____________________ from a flowering plant to other flowers of the same species. </li></ul>
  134. 134. pollen
  135. 135. 67 <ul><li>Insects developed important relationships with ____________________ plants. </li></ul>
  136. 136. flowering
  137. 137. 68 <ul><li>The first vertebrates on land were ____________________. </li></ul>
  138. 138. amphibians
  139. 139. <ul><li>All questions from the test bank on the Holt, Rinehart and Winston CD-ROM, Teachers Resource. 2001 </li></ul>

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