Introduction to safety & health osha


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Introduction to safety & health osha

  1. 1. <ul><li>Workplace injuries and illnesses increasing throughout the 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more comprehensive and uniform protection of nation’s workers is evident </li></ul><ul><li>Size of national workforce increasing, more than 90 million Americans spending their days on the job </li></ul><ul><li>Congressional hearings on worker safety are held </li></ul>The Need for Legislation
  2. 2. The Need for Legislation <ul><li>In 1970, Congress considered these figures: </li></ul><ul><li>14,000 worker deaths </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 million workers disabled </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 new occupational disease cases </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Need for Legislation <ul><li>On December 29th 1970, President Nixon signs the Occupational Safety and Health Act </li></ul>
  4. 4. Public Law 91-596 Occupational Safety & Health Act of 1970 OSH Act <ul><li>The OSHA Act is known by several names </li></ul><ul><li>The OSH Act is comprised of 34 Sections </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>&quot;. . . to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources .&quot; </li></ul>An Act
  6. 6. <ul><li>Coverage of the Act extends to all 50 states, and the District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>Includes all territories under Federal jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage provided either directly by federal OSHA or through an OSHA-approved state program. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces some previously established federal laws. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Longshoring </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>(a) Each employer - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>{ Where OSHA has not passed specific standards, employers are responsible for following the Act’s general duty clause } </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>(b) Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules, regulations, and orders issued pursuant to the Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>8(a) OSHA representatives are authorized to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) enter without delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) inspect during regular working hours and at reasonable times and to question privately employers and employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8(b) OSHA has subpoena power </li></ul><ul><li>8(c) OSHA requires recordkeeping </li></ul><ul><li>8(f) Employees right of complaint </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>9(a) If an employer violates Section 5 of Act or any standard, rule or order related to Section 6, a citation may be issued. Each citation will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be in writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the particular violation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set a reasonable abatement period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>9(b) Posting of citations </li></ul><ul><li>9(c) Time limit - 6 months to issue citation </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>10(a) Employers right of contest; Citations can be contested up to the Safety and Health Review Commission, an independent quasi-judicial branch of the Department of Labor </li></ul><ul><li>10(c) Employee’s right of contest of abatement dates </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>11(a) Appeals & review of Commission order </li></ul><ul><li>11(c) Prohibits discrimination against employees filing complaints under OSHA, or for disclosing safety and health issues concerning the workplace </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Penalties were increased in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Willful & repeated violations to a maximum of $ 70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum $ 5,000 willful </li></ul><ul><li>Serious & other than serious to $ 7,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to abate to a maximum of $ 7,000 for each day violation continues(up to 30 day max.) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Rules to provide for States to assume responsibility for the development and enforcement of occupational safety and health in their own state </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Any State which, at any time, desires to assume responsibility for development and enforcement therein of occupational safety and health standards relating to any occupational safety or health issue with respect to which a Federal standard has been promulgated under section 6 shall submit a State plan for the development of such standards and their enforcement </li></ul>
  17. 17. Origin of OSHA Standards <ul><li>Many OSHA standards were originally developed from three sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal laws already in effect </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Consensus Standards <ul><li>Developed by industry-wide standard developing organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American National Standards Institute (ANSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussed and substantially agreed upon through member consensus </li></ul>NFPA
  19. 19. Consensus Standards <ul><li>Consensus standards are national in scope </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by a committee of experts within a particular field </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI rules provide for the development of standards through subject subcommittees </li></ul>
  20. 20. Examples of Consensus Standards <ul><li>ANSI Standard B56.1-1969, Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks </li></ul>
  21. 21. Examples of Consensus Standards <ul><li>NFPA No. 30-1969, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, is the source for Part 1910 Section 106. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Proprietary Standards <ul><li>Prepared by professional experts within specific industries, professional societies and associations </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by straight membership vote not consensus </li></ul>
  23. 23. Example of Proprietary Standards <ul><li>Compressed Gas Association, Pamphlet P-1, Safe Handling of Compressed Gasses in Containers </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of other associations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Industrial Hygiene Association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Horizontal and Vertical Standards <ul><li>Some standards are horizontal meaning “general”, or “across the board” </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal standards could apply to any employer in any industry </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of horizontal standards include the Hazard Communication Standard which cover the safe use of hazardous chemicals by workers who use them in the workplace </li></ul>
  25. 25. Horizontal and Vertical Standards <ul><li>Vertical standards are specific only to a particular industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welding (1910.252) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards that apply to the special industries covered in Subpart R of 1910 are examples of vertical standards, these include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills (1910.261) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles (1910.262) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sawmills (1910.265) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logging operations (1910.266) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Subpart D - Walking and Working Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart E - Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart F - Powered Platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart G - Occupational Health and Environmental Control </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart H - Hazardous Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment </li></ul>Part 1910 Major Subparts
  27. 27. Part 1910 Major Subparts <ul><li>Subpart J - General Environmental Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart K - Medical and First Aid </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart L - Fire Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart M - Compressed Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart N - Materials Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart O - Machinery and Machine Guarding </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart P - Tools </li></ul>
  28. 28. Part 1910 Major Subparts <ul><li>Subpart Q - Welding, Cutting & Brazing </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart R - Special Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart S - Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart T - Commercial Diving </li></ul><ul><li>Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances </li></ul><ul><li>Each Subpart is then broken down into Sections </li></ul>
  29. 29. Subpart D Walking-Working Surfaces <ul><li>Let’s look at the sections that make up Subpart D: </li></ul><ul><li>1910.21 Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>1910.22 General Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>1910.23 Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes </li></ul><ul><li>1910.24 Fixed Industrial Stairs </li></ul><ul><li>1910.25 Portable Wood Ladders </li></ul><ul><li>1910.26 Portable Metal Ladders </li></ul><ul><li>1910.27 Fixed Ladders </li></ul><ul><li>1910.28 Safety Requirements for Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>1910.29 Manually Propelled Mobile Ladders and Scaffolds </li></ul><ul><li>1910.30 Other Working Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>1910.31 Sources of Standards </li></ul><ul><li>1910.32 Standards Organizations </li></ul>
  30. 30. Reading Standards <ul><li>29 CFR 1910.110(b)(13)(ii) (b)(7)(iii) </li></ul><ul><li>29 United States Code Title </li></ul><ul><li>CFR Code of Federal Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>1910 Part - Part 1910 covers General Industry </li></ul><ul><li>110 Section Number {Section 110 falls under Subpart H; Hazardous Materials} </li></ul>
  31. 31. Reading Standards <ul><li>29 CFR 1910.110(b)(13)(ii) (b)(7)(iii) </li></ul><ul><li>Following the Section number are Major Topic Paragraphs, they are denoted with parentheses and a lower case alphabetical </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Major Topic Paragraph; “Basic Rules” </li></ul><ul><li>(13) Paragraph Subsection; “ LP-Gas in buildings”. </li></ul>Lower Case Alphabetical Arabic Number
  32. 32. Reading Standards <ul><li>29 CFR 1910.110(b)(13)(ii) (b)(7)(iii) </li></ul><ul><li>The next subdivision uses lower case roman numeral </li></ul><ul><li>After this the paragraph number sequence begins again as before only this time using italics </li></ul><ul><li>(After 1979 the fourth set of parentheses uses a capital letter instead of a small case italicized) </li></ul>Lower Case Roman
  33. 33. Color Coding <ul><li>A good way to find standards more quickly is to color code your book </li></ul>29 CFR 1910 .110 (b)(13)(ii) (b)(7)(iii) Title Code of Fed. Reg. Part Section Pink - Full Column Width Yellow - Full Column Width Dot Yellow - Arabic Number