Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Power Grading &      Assessment                                    A different kind of professional development.™     by t...
Presentation Availableslideshare.net/teachforjune
Presentation GoalsAn overview of standards-   based grading and assessment strategies.
The issue we face today inAmerican world-language   classrooms is that our students’ ability does notmatch their achieveme...
One-Semester-of-Spanish  Spanish Love Song      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngRq82c8Baw
If we continue to do things the same way,we’ll continue to get the      same results.
INSANITY
We must make the   change...
and the change is...
NOW!
Power Grading and Assessment:A standards-based approach to making          grades meaningful.
What do grades   mean?
Current Systems
A random numberbetween 0 and 100
Number right     vsnumber wrong
Assignments given        vsassignments turned-in
A ranking among fellow learners
The only thing grades    should mean
An accurate  measurementof achievement
Achievement is the demonstration ofknowledge and skillcomponents of the    standards.
There can be   no value judgementsplaced on a grade outside     of achievement.
Should be focused on the    idea of mastery.
“Students have mastered contentwhen they demonstrate a thoroughunderstanding as evidenced bydoing something substantive wi...
Q&A
Ken      O’Connor’s  8 Guidelines forStandards-based         Grading
1.     Relate grading      procedures to     learning goals.
Learning goals are  basis for gradedetermination and    reporting.
Aligned with Bloom’s or   another taxonomy
Suggestedsecond-language  learning goals
Culture10%
Listening15%
Reading15%
Speaking30%
Writing30%
Assessment methodsare subset of main grading        categories     (learning goals).
Q&A
Use criterion-referenced performance standards   as reference points.2.
Meaning of gradesshould come from clear    descriptions ofperformance standards
Grade is only obtainedby meeting the goal—    NO CURVING
Q&A
Limit the valued3.     attributes in grades         to individual        achievement.
Grades should bebased on achievement.
Effort, participation, attitude,and other behaviors shouldbe reported separately and  not included in student’s  academic ...
Grades should be   based on   individual achievement.
Q&A
Sample student      performance—     do not include all      scores in grade.4.
Do not includeformative assessments      in grades.
Provide feedback onformative performanceusing words, rubrics, or checklists, not grades.
Formative assessments arefrequent, small assessments that assess only one thing.
Formative assessments assess along the path      of learning.
The point of formative   assessments is to givefeedback for improvement.
Analytic rubrics fit bestwith formative assessments.
Analytic rubrics analyze the components of askill individually so thatspecific feedback can         be given.
Text
Include evidence   primarily from a variety of summativeassessments in grades.
Summative assessments  are infrequent, bigassessments that assessmultiple things at once.
Summative assessments assess students at theend of a learning period.
Holistic rubrics fit bestwith summative assessments.
Holistic rubrics analyze the skill as a whole whilestill providing generalized          feedback.
Not always practical in a school setting.
Modification  Don’t include homeworkin the calculation of grades.
Q&A
Grade in pencil—     keep records so       they can be      updated easily.5.
Use most consistentlevel of achievement.
Apply special consideration   for the more recent acheivement evidence.
Provide several  assessment opportunities.
Vary assessments in both method   and number.
Q&A
Crunch numbers carefully—         if at all.6.
Avoid using the mean    (averaging).
The mean is mean   to students.
The mean is the math term for averaging.
Traditional averaging   distorts grades.
Consider using the median,  mode, or power law of  learning to crunch the         numbers.
The median is the middle  number when a set ofnumbers is ordered from    highest to lowest.
The mode is the mostfrequent number that  appears in a set of      numbers.
The power law of learningtakes into account learning         over time.
Points are created      equal.
Weight componentsto acheive intent in final        grades.
Weights aloneare not the answer.
Use Bloom’s Taxonomy      as a guide.
Think “body of evidence”         and use professional judgement.
As the professional, you   need to determine,not just calculate, grades.
The Big Picture“Not everything that can becounted counts, and noteverything that counts canbe counted.”            —Albert...
Standards-based  grading scale
AAdvanced
BProficient
CIntermediate
DNovice
FBeginner
Grading needs to be a measurement of  ability over time.
Grades can’t start and stop at arbitrary check   points, but must beanalyzed over time along      a continuum.
Q&A
Use quality assessment(s) and properly recordedevidence of achievement.7.
Meet the standardfor accurate assessment.
Accurate assessments have clear targets.
Accurate assessmentshave a clear purpose.
The goal of assessmentsis not to give a grade, but   to provide feedback.
To students—so they can take actionand adjust their learning.
To teachers— so they can take actionand adjust their teaching.
To parents—so they are made aware of their child’s progress.
To administration—so they can take actionto improve school-wide        learning.
Accurate assessmentshave a sound design.
Must be well-written.
Be sure to includeHigher-Order Thinking Skills.
Choose 1per assessment.
Use power words as descriptors.
Use appropriate target-method     match.
Listening and Reading     Assessments
TraditionalListening/Reading    Assessment
Students listen or reada prompt in the targetlanguage and answer questions in English.
PROS
Easy to grade
Accurate depiction ofwhat a student knows
Shows what a student understands in the  target language.
CONS
Often answers can be  predicted without    demonstrating   understanding.
Difficult and time-consuming      to create effectively
Suggestion:Include at least 30%inference questions
Examples
Example of TraditionalListening/Reading Assessment
VisualListening/Reading    Assessment
Students match apicture with listeningor reading prompt in  target language.
PROS
Easy to grade.
Shows what a student understands in the  target language
Works across thelanguage barrier
Great for visual andpre-literate learners
CONS
Pictures can be confusing
Suggestion:  Use pictures that arefamiliar to the students.
Examples
Example of VisualListening/Reading Assessment
Example of VisualListening/Reading Assessment
CreativeListening/Reading    Assessment
Students drawwhat they hear or      read.
PROS
Easy to grade
Demonstrates student’s true understanding of    target language
Great for creative, visualand pre-literate learners
CONS
Students may beapprehensive about   drawing skills.
Suggestion: Keep pictures simpleand promote use of stick        figures.
Examples
Example of CreativeListening/Reading Assessment
Writing Assessments
Traditional Writing   Assessment
Students write on    a topic.
PROS
Directed writing
Demonstrates student’s  ability to apply andsynthesize in the target        language
CONS
Very (read too) structured
Often very formulaic
Too polished andnot spontaneous
Suggestion:Use elementary-styleflip books to increasevariety and creativity       in topics.
Examples
Example of Traditional Writing Assessment
Timed-Writing Assessment
Students write withina specific time frame.
PROS
Spontaneous writing
Shows truly what hasbeen acquired in the  target language
Increases fluency(rate at which words flow)
CONS
They can be stressfulto students especially   in the beginning
Students often write thesame thing time after time
Suggestion: Start with 10 minutes and decrease the time by 30seconds as class average    reaches 100 words.
Examples
Example of Timed Writing Assessment
Creative Writing  Assessment
Students write storyfrom pictures they draw.
PROS
Spontaneous writing
Shows truly what hasbeen acquired in the  target language
Allows creativity to flow
CONS
Students try to writebeyound their capabilities      or vocabulary
Suggestion: Remind them to keep it  simple and to stick tovocabulary they already         know.
Examples
Example of Creative Writing Assessment
Speaking Assessments
Dialogue Speaking    Assessment
Students interact  in a dialogue.
PROS
Structured
Easy to grade
May givelower-performing students needed    scaffolding
CONS
Structured
Doesn’t promote  spantaneity
Encourages memorized phrases and speech
Suggestion: Switch up the dialogue roles often and throw inon topic but open-endedquestions to move away   from memorizati...
Examples
Example of Dialogue Speaking Assessment
Picture-sequence    Speaking   Assessment
Students tell story from  picture sequence.
PROS
Relies less on memorized  phrases and speech
Shows what a student is  able to do with the      language
Alllows flexibilitiy and creativity
CONS
Story sequence maynot always be clear
May inadvertentlyintroduce unknown     vocabulary
Suggestion: Suggest to students todescribe the characters and places as well as    tell the action.
Examples
Example of Picture-Sequence   Speaking Assessment
Small-group SpeakingAssessment
Students tell oneframe of a group-drawn         story.
PROS
Allows for a lot of creativity
Promotesteamwork
Individuals areassessed on own skill,  not that of group
CONS
Many students don’t like group work
Students can get off task quickly if not     reigned in
Not all studentsmay participate equally
Suggestion: Assign individual roles within the groups and set clear time limits foreach part of the activity.
Examples
Example of Small-Group Speaking Assessment
Whole-class SpeakingAssessment
Individual students tell   one frame of story: bothstudents and frame selected          randomly.
PROS
Encourages spontaneous       speech
Can assess a largenumber of students   in little time
CONS
Need to have manypicture sequences     on hand
Students may help each other if not watched closely
Suggestion:Have students draw picture  sequences to add to     your collection
Examples
Example of Whole-Class Speaking Assessment
Spontaneous-skit   Speaking  Assessment
Students draw out of a hat scenarios to      act out.
PROS
Little chance ofmemorized speech
Encourages creativity
Can be very entertaining
CONS
Students may findit stressful in the beginning
Need to keepstudents on a short      leash
Suggestion:  Practice a few times before you actually assess students.Give them 10 possible scenarios  a couple of weeks a...
Examples
Example of Spontaneous-Class    Speaking Assessment
Use appropriate   sampling
Must have at least 3assessments for each   learning goal.             speaking quiz 1speaking     speaking quiz 2         ...
Avoid bias and  distortion
Rubrics are a great tool to  set expectations and  measure achievementagainst those expectations
Listening/Reading             Comprehension     Beginner               Novice             Intermediate            Proficien...
Speaking
Writing
Record and maintainevidence of achievement
This can be in the formof portfolios, conferences,   tracking sheets, etc.
Q&A
Discuss and involve         students in        assessment &     grades throughout      learning process.8.
Students must understand how their grades will be      determined
Involve students in theassessment and grading        process.
Q&A
A different kind of professional development.™   ✓ workshops   ✓ webinars   ✓ webinars on demand™   ✓ webverstiy™   ✓ coac...
Power Grading & Assessments by the Standards
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Power Grading & Assessments by the Standards

1,940 views

Published on

Power Grading & Assessment is a program for standards-based grading for world-language programs.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Power Grading & Assessments by the Standards

  1. 1. Power Grading & Assessment A different kind of professional development.™ by the Standards Scott Benedict2012 scott@teachforjune.comcopyright © 2012 teachforjune.com teachforjune.com
  2. 2. Presentation Availableslideshare.net/teachforjune
  3. 3. Presentation GoalsAn overview of standards- based grading and assessment strategies.
  4. 4. The issue we face today inAmerican world-language classrooms is that our students’ ability does notmatch their achievement.
  5. 5. One-Semester-of-Spanish Spanish Love Song http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngRq82c8Baw
  6. 6. If we continue to do things the same way,we’ll continue to get the same results.
  7. 7. INSANITY
  8. 8. We must make the change...
  9. 9. and the change is...
  10. 10. NOW!
  11. 11. Power Grading and Assessment:A standards-based approach to making grades meaningful.
  12. 12. What do grades mean?
  13. 13. Current Systems
  14. 14. A random numberbetween 0 and 100
  15. 15. Number right vsnumber wrong
  16. 16. Assignments given vsassignments turned-in
  17. 17. A ranking among fellow learners
  18. 18. The only thing grades should mean
  19. 19. An accurate measurementof achievement
  20. 20. Achievement is the demonstration ofknowledge and skillcomponents of the standards.
  21. 21. There can be no value judgementsplaced on a grade outside of achievement.
  22. 22. Should be focused on the idea of mastery.
  23. 23. “Students have mastered contentwhen they demonstrate a thoroughunderstanding as evidenced bydoing something substantive with thecontent beyond merely echoing it” —Rick Wormeli
  24. 24. Q&A
  25. 25. Ken O’Connor’s 8 Guidelines forStandards-based Grading
  26. 26. 1. Relate grading procedures to learning goals.
  27. 27. Learning goals are basis for gradedetermination and reporting.
  28. 28. Aligned with Bloom’s or another taxonomy
  29. 29. Suggestedsecond-language learning goals
  30. 30. Culture10%
  31. 31. Listening15%
  32. 32. Reading15%
  33. 33. Speaking30%
  34. 34. Writing30%
  35. 35. Assessment methodsare subset of main grading categories (learning goals).
  36. 36. Q&A
  37. 37. Use criterion-referenced performance standards as reference points.2.
  38. 38. Meaning of gradesshould come from clear descriptions ofperformance standards
  39. 39. Grade is only obtainedby meeting the goal— NO CURVING
  40. 40. Q&A
  41. 41. Limit the valued3. attributes in grades to individual achievement.
  42. 42. Grades should bebased on achievement.
  43. 43. Effort, participation, attitude,and other behaviors shouldbe reported separately and not included in student’s academic (letter) grade.
  44. 44. Grades should be based on individual achievement.
  45. 45. Q&A
  46. 46. Sample student performance— do not include all scores in grade.4.
  47. 47. Do not includeformative assessments in grades.
  48. 48. Provide feedback onformative performanceusing words, rubrics, or checklists, not grades.
  49. 49. Formative assessments arefrequent, small assessments that assess only one thing.
  50. 50. Formative assessments assess along the path of learning.
  51. 51. The point of formative assessments is to givefeedback for improvement.
  52. 52. Analytic rubrics fit bestwith formative assessments.
  53. 53. Analytic rubrics analyze the components of askill individually so thatspecific feedback can be given.
  54. 54. Text
  55. 55. Include evidence primarily from a variety of summativeassessments in grades.
  56. 56. Summative assessments are infrequent, bigassessments that assessmultiple things at once.
  57. 57. Summative assessments assess students at theend of a learning period.
  58. 58. Holistic rubrics fit bestwith summative assessments.
  59. 59. Holistic rubrics analyze the skill as a whole whilestill providing generalized feedback.
  60. 60. Not always practical in a school setting.
  61. 61. Modification Don’t include homeworkin the calculation of grades.
  62. 62. Q&A
  63. 63. Grade in pencil— keep records so they can be updated easily.5.
  64. 64. Use most consistentlevel of achievement.
  65. 65. Apply special consideration for the more recent acheivement evidence.
  66. 66. Provide several assessment opportunities.
  67. 67. Vary assessments in both method and number.
  68. 68. Q&A
  69. 69. Crunch numbers carefully— if at all.6.
  70. 70. Avoid using the mean (averaging).
  71. 71. The mean is mean to students.
  72. 72. The mean is the math term for averaging.
  73. 73. Traditional averaging distorts grades.
  74. 74. Consider using the median, mode, or power law of learning to crunch the numbers.
  75. 75. The median is the middle number when a set ofnumbers is ordered from highest to lowest.
  76. 76. The mode is the mostfrequent number that appears in a set of numbers.
  77. 77. The power law of learningtakes into account learning over time.
  78. 78. Points are created equal.
  79. 79. Weight componentsto acheive intent in final grades.
  80. 80. Weights aloneare not the answer.
  81. 81. Use Bloom’s Taxonomy as a guide.
  82. 82. Think “body of evidence” and use professional judgement.
  83. 83. As the professional, you need to determine,not just calculate, grades.
  84. 84. The Big Picture“Not everything that can becounted counts, and noteverything that counts canbe counted.” —Albert Einstein
  85. 85. Standards-based grading scale
  86. 86. AAdvanced
  87. 87. BProficient
  88. 88. CIntermediate
  89. 89. DNovice
  90. 90. FBeginner
  91. 91. Grading needs to be a measurement of ability over time.
  92. 92. Grades can’t start and stop at arbitrary check points, but must beanalyzed over time along a continuum.
  93. 93. Q&A
  94. 94. Use quality assessment(s) and properly recordedevidence of achievement.7.
  95. 95. Meet the standardfor accurate assessment.
  96. 96. Accurate assessments have clear targets.
  97. 97. Accurate assessmentshave a clear purpose.
  98. 98. The goal of assessmentsis not to give a grade, but to provide feedback.
  99. 99. To students—so they can take actionand adjust their learning.
  100. 100. To teachers— so they can take actionand adjust their teaching.
  101. 101. To parents—so they are made aware of their child’s progress.
  102. 102. To administration—so they can take actionto improve school-wide learning.
  103. 103. Accurate assessmentshave a sound design.
  104. 104. Must be well-written.
  105. 105. Be sure to includeHigher-Order Thinking Skills.
  106. 106. Choose 1per assessment.
  107. 107. Use power words as descriptors.
  108. 108. Use appropriate target-method match.
  109. 109. Listening and Reading Assessments
  110. 110. TraditionalListening/Reading Assessment
  111. 111. Students listen or reada prompt in the targetlanguage and answer questions in English.
  112. 112. PROS
  113. 113. Easy to grade
  114. 114. Accurate depiction ofwhat a student knows
  115. 115. Shows what a student understands in the target language.
  116. 116. CONS
  117. 117. Often answers can be predicted without demonstrating understanding.
  118. 118. Difficult and time-consuming to create effectively
  119. 119. Suggestion:Include at least 30%inference questions
  120. 120. Examples
  121. 121. Example of TraditionalListening/Reading Assessment
  122. 122. VisualListening/Reading Assessment
  123. 123. Students match apicture with listeningor reading prompt in target language.
  124. 124. PROS
  125. 125. Easy to grade.
  126. 126. Shows what a student understands in the target language
  127. 127. Works across thelanguage barrier
  128. 128. Great for visual andpre-literate learners
  129. 129. CONS
  130. 130. Pictures can be confusing
  131. 131. Suggestion: Use pictures that arefamiliar to the students.
  132. 132. Examples
  133. 133. Example of VisualListening/Reading Assessment
  134. 134. Example of VisualListening/Reading Assessment
  135. 135. CreativeListening/Reading Assessment
  136. 136. Students drawwhat they hear or read.
  137. 137. PROS
  138. 138. Easy to grade
  139. 139. Demonstrates student’s true understanding of target language
  140. 140. Great for creative, visualand pre-literate learners
  141. 141. CONS
  142. 142. Students may beapprehensive about drawing skills.
  143. 143. Suggestion: Keep pictures simpleand promote use of stick figures.
  144. 144. Examples
  145. 145. Example of CreativeListening/Reading Assessment
  146. 146. Writing Assessments
  147. 147. Traditional Writing Assessment
  148. 148. Students write on a topic.
  149. 149. PROS
  150. 150. Directed writing
  151. 151. Demonstrates student’s ability to apply andsynthesize in the target language
  152. 152. CONS
  153. 153. Very (read too) structured
  154. 154. Often very formulaic
  155. 155. Too polished andnot spontaneous
  156. 156. Suggestion:Use elementary-styleflip books to increasevariety and creativity in topics.
  157. 157. Examples
  158. 158. Example of Traditional Writing Assessment
  159. 159. Timed-Writing Assessment
  160. 160. Students write withina specific time frame.
  161. 161. PROS
  162. 162. Spontaneous writing
  163. 163. Shows truly what hasbeen acquired in the target language
  164. 164. Increases fluency(rate at which words flow)
  165. 165. CONS
  166. 166. They can be stressfulto students especially in the beginning
  167. 167. Students often write thesame thing time after time
  168. 168. Suggestion: Start with 10 minutes and decrease the time by 30seconds as class average reaches 100 words.
  169. 169. Examples
  170. 170. Example of Timed Writing Assessment
  171. 171. Creative Writing Assessment
  172. 172. Students write storyfrom pictures they draw.
  173. 173. PROS
  174. 174. Spontaneous writing
  175. 175. Shows truly what hasbeen acquired in the target language
  176. 176. Allows creativity to flow
  177. 177. CONS
  178. 178. Students try to writebeyound their capabilities or vocabulary
  179. 179. Suggestion: Remind them to keep it simple and to stick tovocabulary they already know.
  180. 180. Examples
  181. 181. Example of Creative Writing Assessment
  182. 182. Speaking Assessments
  183. 183. Dialogue Speaking Assessment
  184. 184. Students interact in a dialogue.
  185. 185. PROS
  186. 186. Structured
  187. 187. Easy to grade
  188. 188. May givelower-performing students needed scaffolding
  189. 189. CONS
  190. 190. Structured
  191. 191. Doesn’t promote spantaneity
  192. 192. Encourages memorized phrases and speech
  193. 193. Suggestion: Switch up the dialogue roles often and throw inon topic but open-endedquestions to move away from memorization.
  194. 194. Examples
  195. 195. Example of Dialogue Speaking Assessment
  196. 196. Picture-sequence Speaking Assessment
  197. 197. Students tell story from picture sequence.
  198. 198. PROS
  199. 199. Relies less on memorized phrases and speech
  200. 200. Shows what a student is able to do with the language
  201. 201. Alllows flexibilitiy and creativity
  202. 202. CONS
  203. 203. Story sequence maynot always be clear
  204. 204. May inadvertentlyintroduce unknown vocabulary
  205. 205. Suggestion: Suggest to students todescribe the characters and places as well as tell the action.
  206. 206. Examples
  207. 207. Example of Picture-Sequence Speaking Assessment
  208. 208. Small-group SpeakingAssessment
  209. 209. Students tell oneframe of a group-drawn story.
  210. 210. PROS
  211. 211. Allows for a lot of creativity
  212. 212. Promotesteamwork
  213. 213. Individuals areassessed on own skill, not that of group
  214. 214. CONS
  215. 215. Many students don’t like group work
  216. 216. Students can get off task quickly if not reigned in
  217. 217. Not all studentsmay participate equally
  218. 218. Suggestion: Assign individual roles within the groups and set clear time limits foreach part of the activity.
  219. 219. Examples
  220. 220. Example of Small-Group Speaking Assessment
  221. 221. Whole-class SpeakingAssessment
  222. 222. Individual students tell one frame of story: bothstudents and frame selected randomly.
  223. 223. PROS
  224. 224. Encourages spontaneous speech
  225. 225. Can assess a largenumber of students in little time
  226. 226. CONS
  227. 227. Need to have manypicture sequences on hand
  228. 228. Students may help each other if not watched closely
  229. 229. Suggestion:Have students draw picture sequences to add to your collection
  230. 230. Examples
  231. 231. Example of Whole-Class Speaking Assessment
  232. 232. Spontaneous-skit Speaking Assessment
  233. 233. Students draw out of a hat scenarios to act out.
  234. 234. PROS
  235. 235. Little chance ofmemorized speech
  236. 236. Encourages creativity
  237. 237. Can be very entertaining
  238. 238. CONS
  239. 239. Students may findit stressful in the beginning
  240. 240. Need to keepstudents on a short leash
  241. 241. Suggestion: Practice a few times before you actually assess students.Give them 10 possible scenarios a couple of weeks ahead of time to practice and reduce stress.
  242. 242. Examples
  243. 243. Example of Spontaneous-Class Speaking Assessment
  244. 244. Use appropriate sampling
  245. 245. Must have at least 3assessments for each learning goal. speaking quiz 1speaking speaking quiz 2 speaking test
  246. 246. Avoid bias and distortion
  247. 247. Rubrics are a great tool to set expectations and measure achievementagainst those expectations
  248. 248. Listening/Reading Comprehension Beginner Novice Intermediate Proficient AdvancedStudent is unable to Student is rarely able Student is able to Student is able tounderstand spoken/ to understand Student is understand spoken / understand spoken / written language spoken /written sometimes able to written language written languageappropriate to their language appropriate understand spoken / appropriate to their appropriate to their level. Little to no to their level, though written language level consistently, but level consistently and knowledge of some knowledge of appropriate to their is unable to infer is able to infervocabulary items is vocabulary items is level. meaning not meaning not evident. evident. explicitly stated. explicitly stated.
  249. 249. Speaking
  250. 250. Writing
  251. 251. Record and maintainevidence of achievement
  252. 252. This can be in the formof portfolios, conferences, tracking sheets, etc.
  253. 253. Q&A
  254. 254. Discuss and involve students in assessment & grades throughout learning process.8.
  255. 255. Students must understand how their grades will be determined
  256. 256. Involve students in theassessment and grading process.
  257. 257. Q&A
  258. 258. A different kind of professional development.™ ✓ workshops ✓ webinars ✓ webinars on demand™ ✓ webverstiy™ ✓ coaching ✓ consulting Scott Benedict scott@teachforjune.comcopyright © 2012 teachforjune.com teachforjune.com

×