Language learning resources


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Language learning resources

  2. 2. Didactics and language learning resources According to Oerbaek (2008), the term “didactics” originates from the Greek Didaskein, which means to teach, to educate. In EFL, didactics is a major component of teacher education because it revolves around the answers to the questions “what”, “how”, and “why”. Navarro and Piñeiro (2012) define didactics as the discipline that studies techniques, procedures, strategies, and methods to enhance the teaching process for students to approach in a wide, deep, and significant way knowledge… (p. 234).
  3. 3. Didactics and language learning resources John Amos Comenius (The great didactic) The proper education of the young does not consist in stuffing their heads with a mass of words, sentences, and ideas dragged together out of various authors, but in opening up their understanding to the outer world, so that a living stream may flow from their own minds, just as leaves, flowers, and fruit spring from the bud on a tree.
  4. 4. Didactics and language learning resources John Amos Comenius (The great didactic) • Disapproved of - the tradition of studying grammar and memorizing texts. - the severe teaching methods in schools, which diminished student interest in learning. • Proposed - a revolution in methods of teaching so that learning might become rapid, pleasant, and thorough. - matching students' stages of development and the level of instruction. - lesson planning from easy to complex at a slow and deliberate pace.
  5. 5. Didactics and language learning resources John Amos Comenius (The great didactic) (1) learning foreign languages through the mother tongue as a frame of reference for unfamiliar words to become meaningful. (2) presenting ideas through objects and images rather than words. (3) starting with the use of familiar concepts to introduce the new language. (4) beginning with simple exercises before proceeding to more complex contents. (5) Presenting simplified vocabulary and specific examples to help students understand rules or structures.
  6. 6. Didactics and language learning resources Communicative language teaching (Jack Richards) A reaction away from - a grammar-focused approach - a great a priority to accuracy - the sentence as the unit of presentation and practice. A set of principles about - communication as the focus of teaching and learning - communicative competence as the goal of language teaching through tasks, role plays, information sharing, and so on. - the provision of opportunities for students to practice language use through the classroom materials and activities.
  7. 7. Didactics and language learning resources Linguistic competence - Mastery of the language based on studying structures and the grammatical rules of the language. - Ability to create accurate sentences in the language. - Knowing the rules of sentence formation. Communicative competence - Knowing how sentences are used in communication naturally and appropriately. - The capacity to use language in ways that appropriate for the context, the participants, and their relationships. Rethinking syllabuses and materials for a language course (functions, tasks, fluency activities, different texts, etc.)
  8. 8. Didactics and language learning resources Essentials for successful ELT (Farrell & Jacobs, 2010) An approach to teaching English for enabling language learners to use language functionally, meaningfully and appropriately, instead of correctly. It impacts: • the goals of language teaching, • how learners learn a language, • the kinds of classroom learning activities, • the roles of teachers and learners. Phase 1: functional and skill-based teaching (60’s) Phase 2: communicative competence – appropriate and varied language use (70’s – 90’s) Phase 3: agreed principles about complementing linguistic/communicative competence, accuracy/fluency, reception/production (90’s – until now).
  9. 9. Didactics and language learning resources Essentials for successful ELT (Farrell & Jacobs, 2010) CLT is a paradigm shift because in order to successfully implement it, we must change our thinking about teachers, students, learning, and teaching a second language. A move away from behaviorist psychology and structural linguistics toward socio-cognitive psychology and contextualized, meaning-based views of language. Partially implementation because of two reasons: - Separate understanding and limited picture communication. - Separate implementation and challenging change. of
  10. 10. Didactics and language learning resources Stop understanding the CLT shift in a piecemeal (fragmented) in order to implement it in a holistic manner. How? Considering eight major changes associated with the language education field in a more integrated fashion.
  11. 11. Language learning resources Resourcing and materials (Scarino & Liddicoat, 2009) ASPECT ATTRIBUTES 1. The purpose A. __ A range of engaging learning experiences. 2. Selection B. __ Interpretations, expressions, and perspectives. 3. Authenticity C. __ Resources do not exit in isolation in a learning program. 4. Adaptability D. ___ Input, scaffolding, reflection / Multiplicity in uses / Critical users. 5. Contemporary E. __ Theories of language learning and culture / Matching resources and learning goals 6. Critical use F. __ Actual contemporary use. Enlarge understanding of language & culture. 7. Relationship/Connection G. Effective teachers / Partial pix of language and culture. 8. Learners H. __ Dynamic language & culture // Contemporary relevance for Ss. 9. Resource bank I. __ Maximize value for particular learners // Personalization to connect resources to learners.
  12. 12. Language learning resources Resourcing and materials (Scarino & Liddicoat, 2009) 1. The purpose 2. Selection 3. Authenticity D. Input, scaffolding, E. Theories of language F. Actual contemporary us reflection // Multiplicity in learning and culture // /// Enlarge understanding uses // Critical users. matching resources and of language & culture. learning goals. 4. Adaptability 5. Contemporary 6. Critical use I. Maximize value for H. Dynamic language & G. Effective teachers // particular learner // culture // Contemporary Partial pix of language Personalization to connect relevance for Ss. and culture. resources to learners. 7. Relationship/Connection 8. Learners 9. Resources bank C. Resources do not exit B. Interpretations, A. A range of engaging in isolation in a learning expressions, and learning experiences. program. perspectives.
  13. 13. Language learning resources Managing resources: equipment and teaching aids / Using materials (Gower, Walters & Philips, 2005) The board The OP Visuals Worksheets & workcards The Cassette recorder (The CD player) Video Computers The photocopier Published materials: coursebooks, skills books, readers, supplementary books, references books, resources books, CALL. Authentic materials
  14. 14. Language learning resources Educational technology (Harmer, 2004) and other learning resources
  15. 15. Language learning resources Educational technology (Harmer, 2004) and other learning resources Students Objects, pictures, and things: realia, pictures, cards, cuisenaire rods. The coursebook Ways of showing: the board, the OHP, the flip chart, computer-based presentation technology. Ways of listening: CDs, MP3 Ways of finding out: dictionaries, concordances, the internet. Ways of composing: word processing/editing, mousepals, chat, blogging, authoring, website design. Virtual learning: from emails to simulated environments.
  16. 16. Language learning resources Educational technology (Harmer, 2004) and other learning resources RESOURCES ACTIVITIES Students Thoughts – Experiences Realia Stimulators / Evocative objects Pictures Drills / Games / Understanding / Ornamentation / Prediction / Discussion Cards Matching and ordering / Selecting / Card games Cuisenaire rods Word stress / Structures / Prepositions Coursebook Omit and replace / Change: add, rewrite, replace, reorder, reduce. The board Note-pad / Explanation aid / Picture frame / public workbook / game board / Notice board
  17. 17. Language learning resources Educational technology (Harmer, 2004) and other learning resources RESOURCES ACTIVITIES OHP Grammar exercises, pictures, diagrams, gradual work. The flip chart Making notes, recording main points, group work. Computer-based Computer and data projector, PowerPoint, IWB. presentation Dictionaries Paper dictionaries (bilingual or monolingual), CDROMs, electronic pocket dictionaries, online dictionaries. Concordances Word research and vocabulary exploration. The internet References, encyclopedias, webquests. Composing Word processing/editing, blogging, authoring (hot (Google sites) keypals, potatoes), chatting, websites
  18. 18. Language learning resources Materials and resources for ELT (Trujillo & Salvadores, 2004) • • • • The blackboard Visual aids The textbook Hand-made materials Traditional resources Audio and visual resources • The OHP • The audio player • The video player and camera • • • • Physical setting The internet Off-line use On-line use ICT in the teaching of English
  19. 19. Language learning resources Resource The learner The board The OP Visuals Worksheets and workcards Cassettes/CDs/MP3 Videos/Cameras Computers The photocopier Published materials Authentic materials What? Why? How?
  20. 20. Language learning resources The role of materials in the language classroom (Crawford, 2002) - Attitudes Debilitating crutch: Ts reduce to classroom technicians and implementers. Helpful scaffold: Materials as guides and negotiating points. O’Neill (1982): Uniqueness of the class cannot be met. Littlejohn (1999): Reduction of the T’s role. Allwright (1981): Make decisions for Ts and Ss. Nunan (1989): Fail to provide authentic models. Walts (1989): Fail to contextualize. Kaplan & Knutson (1993): Fail to address discourse. Apple (1992): Materials are not neutral. Loewenberg-Nall and FeimanNenser (1988): Assist inexperienced Ts Donoghue (1992): Source of info and support for experienced Ts Hutchinson and Torres (1994): - Agent for change: training, guidance, collegial support, clear picture. - A structuring tool = social routinisation reduces unpredictability and unfamiliarity. - A useful map: Negotiation, accountability, and orientation.
  21. 21. Language learning resources The role of materials in the language classroom (Crawford, 2002) Materials contribute to goals and content but they cannot determine either. What is learnt is a product of the interaction between learners, teachers and the materials at their disposal. Teachers do not teach what materials writers write just as learners do not learn what teachers teach. Effective materials: - Functional and contextualized. - Purposeful use of language. - Realistic and authentic. - Audiovisual/Multimedia oriented. - Written and spoken genres. - Learner autonomy. - Flexible to learner differences and contexts. - Affective and cognitive engaging.
  22. 22. Language learning resources The role and design of instructional materials (Richards, 2001) Roles/Functions - A source of language - A learning support - Motivation and stimulation Authentic Effect on motivation Authentic cultural information Exposure to real language Develop Ts’ creativity Contain difficult language - Reference - A source of activities - A syllabus - A support for teachers vs created materials Motivating for learners Built around a graded syllabus Accessible and no-time consuming Textbooks: Evaluation for selection and adaptation for use.
  23. 23. Language learning resources Materials development or preparation - Relevance - Cost - Develop expertise and reputation - Quality - Flexibility - Training 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Establish goals and objectives. Develop a plan/structure. Choosing input and sources (grammar, listening, reading, writing, speaking materials) Selecting exercises: Bottom-up, top-down, interactional, involving linguistic (questions, summaries, info reorganization) or nonlinguistic responses (picture sequencing, matching, etc.) Organize and develop materials. Pilot, review and edit Monitoring the use of materials Observation Feedback sessions Written reports Reviews
  24. 24. Language learning resources Guidelines for designing effective ELT materials (Howard & Major, 2005) Factors Guidelines Learners Curriculum and context Resources and facilities Personal confidence and competence Copyright Time 1. Contextualized 6. Authentic 2. Interactive 7. Progression of skills 3. Learning skills 8. Attractive 4. Form function focus and 9. instructions. 5. Integrated 10. Flexible language use. Appropriate
  25. 25. Language learning resources Key aspects for developing instructional materials (Núñez, Pineda & Tellez, 2004) 1. Prerequisites - Objectives and materials congruency - Prior knowledge activation - Type of interaction - Effectiveness 2. Design and motivation: attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction. 3. Content contextualization and exposure to L2 4. Visual layout: clarity, info distribution, legibility, varied activities, eyecatchiness. 5. Recommendations: systematize the process and avoid piracy.