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  1. 1. METER Metre
  2. 2. <ul><li>The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning God created heaven and earth. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is meter ? <ul><li>The rhythm of accented and unaccented syllables which are organized into patterns (called feet ). </li></ul><ul><li>The linguistic sound patterns of a verse. </li></ul><ul><li>The recurrence of similar verse-factors. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Accent and Stress : What’s the difference?
  5. 5. Word Accent <ul><li>The relatively greater force which is put upon one syllable over another is called word accent . </li></ul><ul><li>Syllables without primary or secondary accent are called unaccented . </li></ul><ul><li>Monosyllables may, for convenience, be regarded as single accented syllables. </li></ul><ul><li> so rrow sub lime </li></ul><ul><li>dem on stra tion cu mu la tive </li></ul>
  6. 6. Verse stress <ul><li>The ictus placed on certain syllables recurring at regular intervals in a verse of poetry. It determines the rhythm of the verse. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Does the verse-stress always coincide with the word-accent? <ul><li>- /     -     /     -  /  - /  -   / </li></ul><ul><li>Ab sent thee from fe li ci ty a while . </li></ul><ul><li>- - /     -     - /     -    -  / </li></ul><ul><li>And the light thereof hurled and the noise </li></ul><ul><li>- - / </li></ul><ul><li>thereof rolled . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Guidelines <ul><li>The verse-stress never falls on an unaccented syllable; nor on a secondary accent, unless the primary accent of the same word is also stressed. </li></ul><ul><li>But, the verse-stress does not necessarily fall on every accented syllable; that is, accented syllables may be unstressed in the verse. </li></ul><ul><li>Monosyllables, since they are regarded as accented syllables, may receive verse-stress. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Put simply: </li></ul><ul><li>Unaccented syllables are unstressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Accented syllables, including monosyllables, may be stressed or unstressed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is metrical foot ? <ul><li>A unit of meter. </li></ul><ul><li>Any regular, single group of stressed and unstressed syllables. </li></ul><ul><li>In English, feet are named for the combination of accented and unaccented syllables. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How many feet are there in each of the following verses? <ul><li>- /     -     /     -  /  - /  -   / </li></ul><ul><li>Ab sent thee from fe li ci ty a while . </li></ul><ul><li>- - /     -     - /     -    -  / </li></ul><ul><li>And the light thereof hurled and the noise </li></ul><ul><li>- - / </li></ul><ul><li>thereof rolled . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Four principal feet: <ul><li>Iambus </li></ul><ul><li>1 unstressed and </li></ul><ul><li>1 stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Anapest </li></ul><ul><li>2 unstressed and </li></ul><ul><li>1 stressed </li></ul><ul><li>Trochee </li></ul><ul><li>1 stressed and </li></ul><ul><li>1 unstressed </li></ul><ul><li>Dactyl </li></ul><ul><li>1 stressed and </li></ul><ul><li>2 unstressed </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>&quot; To be or not to be . </li></ul><ul><li>-Hamlet (William Shakespeare) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Come live with me and be my l ove .” </li></ul><ul><li>-The Passionate Shepherd to His Love (Christopher Marlowe) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>&quot; By the shores of Git che Gu mee By the shin ing Big -Sea- wa ter.” </li></ul><ul><li>- The Song of Hiawatha (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Dou ble, dou ble, toil and trou ble .” </li></ul><ul><li>- Macbeth (William Shakespeare) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>&quot;Like a child from the womb , like a ghost from the tomb I a rise and un build it a gain .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>- The Cloud (Percy Bysshe Shelley) </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ This is the/ for est prim-/ ev al . The / mur muring / pines and the / hem l ocks , </li></ul><ul><li>- Evangeline </li></ul><ul><li>(Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is verse ? <ul><li>A line of poetry made up usually of several feet, but sometimes containing only one. </li></ul><ul><li>A verse consisting of one foot is called a monometer ; 2 feet, dimeter ; 3 feet, trimeter ; 4 feet, tetrameter ; 5 feet, pentameter ; 6 feet, hexameter ; 7 feet, heptameter ; 8 feet, octameter . </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is scansion ? <ul><li>The analysis of poetry's metrical and rhythmic patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis of a line of poetry for foot and meter . </li></ul><ul><li>To &quot;scan&quot; a line of poetry means to analyze it rhythmically. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Scan the following verses: <ul><li>1. Fair daffodils, we weep to see </li></ul><ul><li>You haste away so soon. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To a precipice goes, </li></ul><ul><li>Where a leap from above </li></ul><ul><li>Would soon finish his woes. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>3. Ah, distinctly I remember, it was in the bleak December. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Still it kept flowing and flowing, and other streams ran to its bosom. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Answers: <ul><li>1. Fair daf fo dils , we weep to see </li></ul><ul><li>You haste a way so soon . (IAMBIC) </li></ul><ul><li>2. To a pre cipice goes , </li></ul><ul><li>Where a leap from a bove </li></ul><ul><li>Would soon fi nish his woes . (ANAPESTIC) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>3. Ah , dis tinc tly I re mem ber, it was in the bleak De cem ber. (TROCHAIC) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Still it kept flow ing and flow ing, and o ther streams ran to its bo som. (DACTYLIC) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Metrical Variations <ul><li>English verse does not adhere rigidly to a given type (i.e. the entire line is not always made up of a regular succession of iambi or anapests or trochees or dactyls.) </li></ul><ul><li>Metrical variations are employed which help give the flexible quality of a verse. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Substitution - An anapestic foot frequently takes the place of an iambus, and vice versa. The same is true between trochees and dactyls. </li></ul><ul><li>My thoughts still cling to the moul dering past . ( shift from iambic to anapestic) </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Inversion – Feet are sometimes inverted; that is, a trochee takes the place of an iambus; a dactyl of an anapest; and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Through cav erns meas ure less to man , </li></ul><ul><li>Down to a sun less sea . ( shift from iambic to trochaic) </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Catalexis – The unstressed syllable (or syllables) beginning an iambic (or anapestic) verse may be omitted; similarly the unstressed syllable (or syllables) at the end of a trochaic (or dactylic) verse. The verse is said to be catalectic . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>^ Who would be </li></ul><ul><li>A mer man bold , </li></ul><ul><li>^ Sit ting a lone , </li></ul><ul><li>^ Sing ing a lone , </li></ul><ul><li>^ Un der the sea . </li></ul>
  28. 28. Characteristic Effects of Various Feet and Metrical Variations <ul><li>1. Anapestic and dactylic lines, containing as they do a large proportion of unaccented syllables, have a lighter and more rapid movement than iambic and trochaic lines. Hence, they are suited to fervid emotion, quick action, flowing melody. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>2. Meters consisting of feet beginning with unstressed syllables ( iambi and anapests ) create the sense of an upward movement , and the general impression tends to be grave and conclusive . </li></ul><ul><li>Those that start with stressed syllables ( trochees and dactyls ) suggest a downward movement , and give the impression of lightness and expectancy . </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>3. Perfect regularity of meter gives the character of steadiness , and suggests quiet, unobtrusive emotion , sometimes lends a formal dignity to the verse. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Assignment =) <ul><li>1. Scan the poem “A Psalm of Life” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Research on the following feet; define and give an example of each: </li></ul><ul><li>a. spondaic </li></ul><ul><li>b. pyrrhic </li></ul>