Introduction• Medium Aevum – Middle Ages• Began after the fall of the Roman Empire• A period of stagnation and great change• Events and ideas from the Medieval period became the foundation of our modern institutions (Roman Catholic Church, universities and schools, guilds)
Political Situation• Rulers – Tribes – Charlemagne – Warring invaders and Royal Dynasties
• Feudalism – A system of political organization that governed everyone’s role in society – Nobility, Clergy and Peasants – A series of contracts between the nobles (seigneurials)
• Roman Catholic Church – Clergy were the 2nd rank in feudalism – Two branches: Eastern and Western – Roman Pope (Western) had great influence – System of laws, courts and properties – Influence spread by the monastic system
• Crusades – 7 major crusades – Pilgrimages to the Holy Land - 1095 Pope Urban II - Trade
• Black Death – 14th century – Form of bubonic plague – Originated in China – Average life expectancy in the 20’s
• Inquisition – Adherence to the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church – Established in 1231
The Arts• Literature – England • Beowulf • Chaucer – Canterbury Tales • Sir Thomas Malory – La Mort d’Arthur – France Chaucer Canterbury Tales • Troubadours • Trouvères – Germany • Nibelungenlied – Italy • Dante – Divine Comedy • Petrarch - Canzoniere Dante Divine Comedy
• Theatre – Liturgical Drama – Miracle and Mystery Plays – Morality Play
• Architecture – Romanesque (1000 to 1250) • Stone vaulted buildings • Domes • Castles: moat, drawbridge, keep
Gothic (1140 to 1400)• Ribbed Vault• Flying buttresses
Music in the Medieval Period• Sacred Tradition – Plainchant Monophonic vocal music of the church Pope Gregory About 3,000 extant Sung as solo, unison or antiphonal Non-metric, modal, in Latin Based on modes: Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian
– Mass • Ite, missa est • Latin Texts: Proper and Ordinary • Ordinary – Kyrie – Kyrie eleison Lord have mercy upon us – Christe eleison Christ have mercy upon us – Kyrie eleison Lord have mercy upon us
– Gloria Gloria in excelsis deo, Glory to God in the highest, et in terra pax hominibus bonae and on earth peace to people of voluntatis good will. We praise you. Laudamus te. We bless you. Benedicimus te. We adore you. Adoramus te. We glorify you. Glorificamus te. We give thanks to you for your great Gratias agimus tibi propter glory. magnam gloriam tuam. Lord God, Heavenly King, God Domine Deus, Rex caelestis, Almighty Father. Deus Pater omnipotens. Lord Only-begotten Son, Jesus Domine fili unigenite, Jesu Christ. Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Christe. Father. Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius You who take away the sins of the patris. world have mercy on us. Qui tollis peccata mundi, You who take away the sins of the miserere nobis. world hear our prayer. Qui tollis peccata mundi suscipe You who sit at the Fathers right deprecationem nostram. hand, have mercy on us. Qui sedes ad dexteram patris For you alone are holy. miserere nobis. You alone, Lord. Quoniam tu solus sanctus. You alone the Most High, Jesus Christ. Tu solus Dominus. With the Holy Spirit in the glory of Tu solus Altissimus, Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Amen. God the Father. Amen .
– CredoCredo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, I believe in one God, The Father Almighty,factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et Maker of heaven and earth, and of all thingsinvisibilium. Et in unum Dominum Jesum visible and invisible. And in one Lord, JesusChristum, Filium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God. Born ofnatum ante omnia saecula. Deum de Deo, lumen the Father before all ages. God of God, Light ofde lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, Light, true God of true God. Begotten, not made,not factum, consubstantialem Patri: per quem of one substance with the Father. By whom allomnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines, et things were made. Who for us men and for ourpropter nostram salutem descendit de coelis. Et salvation came down from heaven. (here allincarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria present kneel) And became incarnate by theVirgine: ET HOMO FACTUS EST. Crucifixus Holy Spirit of the Virgin Mary: AND WAS MADEetiam pro nobis; sub Pontio Pilato passus, et MAN. (here all arise) He was also crucified forsepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum us, suffered under Pontius Pilate, and wasScripturas. Et ascendit in coelum: sedet ad buried. And on the third day He rose againdesteram Patris. Et iterum venturus est com according to the Scriptures. He ascended intogloria judicare vivos et mortuos. cujus regni non heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father.erit finis. Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et He will come again in glory to judge the livingvivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque procedit. Qui and the dead and His kingdom will have no end.cum Patre, et Filio simul adoratur et And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of life,conglorificatur: qui locutus est per Prophetas. Et Who proceeds from the Father and the Son.unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Who together with the Father and the Son isEcclesiam. Confiteor unum baptisma in adored and glorified, and who spoke through theremissionem peccatorum. Et exspecto prophets. And one holy, Catholic and Apostolicresurrectionem mortuorum. Et vitam ventura Church. I confess one baptism for thesaeculi. Amen. forgiveness of sins and I await the resurrection of the dead and the life + of the world to come. Amen.
– SanctusSanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of Hosts.Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Heaven and earth are filledPleni sunt coeli et terra with your glory.gloria tua. Hosanna in the highest.Hosanna in excelsis. Blessed is He Who comesBenedictus qui venit in in the Name of the Lord.nomine Domini. Hosanna in the highestHosanna in excelsis.
- Agnus DeiAgnus Dei, qui tolis Lamb of God, Who takepeccata mundi, away the sins of the world,misere nobis. have mercy on us.Agnus Dei, qui tollis Lamb of God, Who takepeccata mundi, misere away the sins of the world,nobis. have mercy on us.Agnus Dei, qui tollis Lamb of God, Who takepeccata mundi, away the sins of the world, grant us peace.dona nobis pacem.
– Polyphony • Evolved from 10th to 11th century • Organum • Cantus firmus
– Notation • Oral tradition • As amounts of chants grew, notation needed • Neumes
• Two lines: one red for F, one yellow for C• 11th century – Guido of Arezzo Ut queant laxis Resonare fileris Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum Solve polutte Labi reaturm
• 12th century – four lines• 13th century – mensural• 16th century
– Composers • Anonymous • Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179) – O frondens virga
• Notre Dame School Leonin (c. 1135-1201) – Introduced definite rhythm patterns to chants Perotin (c. 1160-1240) – Student of Leonin – First to compose music based on chants with more than two voices
• Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300-1377) – Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, qui Lamb of God, tolis peccata Who take away mundi, the sins of the misere nobis. world, have Agnus Dei, qui mercy on us. tollis peccata Lamb of God, mundi, misere Who take away nobis. the sins of the Agnus Dei, qui world, have tollis peccata mercy on us. mundi, Lamb of God, dona nobis Who take away pacem. the sins of the world, grant us peace.
• Secular Tradition – Court Music • Struggle with the church for power in influence • Musicians hired to entertain • Instrumental music most prominent – Estampie – Instrumental • Musician/poets: Troubadours, Trouvères • Minstrels and Jongleurs