THE DEVELEPMENT OF A CHANGE MANGEMENT MODEL
TOWARD THE EXCELLENCE OF PUBLIC BASIC EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS.
This research focuses on studying the states and the problems of the change management of
public basic education institutions and developing the model of the change management toward the
excellence of public basic education institutions. The samples used in this research were from 9
administrators of the excellence state basic education institutions who were selected by the
purposive sampling, and 471 acting school administrators , assistant school administrators, heads of
department or head of divisions who were selected by the multistage sampling. The instruments
used in this study were comprised of the analysis of related documents, structural interviews and
The research was found that (1) state of the change management of the institutions has the
direction baseline of administration by wants/needs , major jobs analysis and institution needs ,
budget plans consistent with institution policies, have the annual action plans ,bottom up
management , implement staff to do self assessment and use the information to improve teaching
and learning appropriately. (2) The problem of change management of institutions was the policy
formulations don’t reflect the real problems of institutions. The goal setting doesn’t come from the
real problems/needs analysis and strategy does not relate with strategy of organization, no team
work, number of staff does not relate with the amount of tasks , lack of budget, rules of institutions
not create decision making of staff and the job assessments don’t cover according mentioned in the
action plans. (3) the model of the change management toward the excellence of public basic
education institutions should be in the form of integrated four-perspective model is comprised of
Top-down, Bottom- up, Outside-In and Inside-Out. Strategies of management and implementation,
which is comprised of the commander approach, limited consultative approach, decentralized
approach, organizational development and organization member ability creation. The factors of
achievement mostly depended on the individual capability of the school administrators and the
supportive factors, such as resources management, personal cooperation, an outside network,
problem solving, continuous development, appropriate implementation, institution and
Obviously globalization, progression in technology, economic crisis, democratic politics,
enactment of constitution and health care innovation affect changing within the dominant. These
changes are factors that influent and drive education system to be changed in philosophy,
propose, curriculum, teaching and learning, teaching and learning evaluation, supervision and
personnel management. Education system management, roles of administrators and teachers tend
to go the same way as business management which aims to the most success especially the
change that effects the basic education management. That system prepares the most precious
resources for the country in this changing era. Also it accelerates quality level of people in the
country that causes the development of the country in the future.
Principle of change management in basic education institutions relates to the outstanding
change management and adaptable to the education change. Lewin’s theory explained that the
changing process in E theory is the rapid change and concentrate on the change from up to down
and the change needs outside consultants while O theory of Leucke concentrates on changing to
the effective results. Consequently, O theory promotes more practices, powerful cultures and high
potential personnel. Hamlin (2001) said most changing covers a way that effect most parts of the
organization by this change can be a mix or continuity with many kinds depending on the content
of each institution. Nevertheless theories or thoughts of this management cannot be the best, in
other words, no one best way. In practice, the best theory is the one that best fits or suits to the
situation and mostly is created from the new management which has been used often. Thus, the
best pattern must present the relationship between variables that lead to the expected outcome.
Also it should be able to be inspected and elucidated to the structure or the logic relation about
what was done explicitly.
As an administrator in a basic education, a researcher realizes that pattern of a good and
suitable school management model could be used in school management to meet the excellence of
institution according to the purposes of education management in today’s changing state. That’s
why the researcher was interested in studying the development of a change management model
toward the excellence of the state basic education institutions which will be useful for both in
academic and practice for basic education management. Also those can increase the efficiency
and quality of education over all the country.
1. To study the change of state basic education institutions
2. To study the problems of state basic education institutions
3. To improve a change management model toward the excellence of the state basic
The methodology used in this research was Descriptive Research Methodology which
collected data from many sources and techniques to assure the accuracy of data. In this research,
there are both Quantitative Data and Qualitative Data which were collected by these following
Step 1 Specify concept idea by studying documents, concepts, theories and researches
related to a change management model toward the excellence of the state basic education
institutions then use those data to define the outcome.
Step 2 Study state and problem of change management toward the excellence of state
basic education institutions by studying state and problems from documents and researches
related to the issue used. The tools used in this research were made under the concept idea of the
research which was the analysis of related documents. Examination of data, researcher used both
analysis and synthesis of content and then summarized in a research concept idea. Researcher
studied state and problem by interviewing the administrators of the excellence basic education
institutions and analyzed data from a query using mean and standard deviation. Studying state and
problems of interviewing the administrators of excellence basic education institutions was made
by using structural interviews and synthesis material.
Step 3 Creating model of change management toward the excellence of state basic
education institutions, researcher drafted the model of synthesizing of educational concept idea,
relevant theory result, the result of state and problems of change management toward the
excellence of state basic education institutions
Step 4 Evaluating the appropriateness and feasibility of the model by focus group
discussion of 18 experts selected experts and advisors from specified person. There are 3 groups
of specified person which are 1) Group of people who are or used to be an executive at the
Ministry of Education or Educational Area Office 2) Group of experts or lawyers 3) Group of
workers in education institution including school directors, assistant directors and heads of
learning substances or heads of division then analyze and synthesize information in order to
improve the model in the future
Step 5 Improving and presenting model using the result of appropriateness and feasibility
of the change management model toward the excellence of state basic education institutions from
experts to develop change management model in education institutions
Population and Samples This study used population and samples to collect data separated
into 2 sections
1. Data collected from interviews
The populations used are 609 school administrators from basic education institution
category 1.The samples used are 9 school administrators from basic education institution category
1 which selected by purposive sampling from distribution area inspector.
2. Data collected from a query
The populations used are principles directors, act of principles acting directors, principle
assistants assistant directors and heads of learning substances or heads of division of excellent
basic education institutions.
The samples used are principles directors, act of principles acting directors, principle
assistants assistant directors and heads of learning substances or heads of division of excellent
basic education institutions in total of 482 people which were obtained by Multistage Sampling.
1. Analysis of related documents was created to analysis and synthesis papers on concepts,
principles, theories and research related to the concept of research.
2. Interview used is structural interviews which was created for interviewing school
administrators from excellent basic education institutions to find the model of change
management toward the excellence of state basic education institutions.
3. Questionnaire used is Check List which was created for officers of excellent state basic
education institutions to find out state and problems of change management toward the
excellence of state basic education institutions.
1. These are results of studying state and problems of management process:
1) Goal setting, problems or needs analyzing were set by considering needs, basic
needs but goal setting was still not clear.
2) Policy setting was not really reflecting the real problems of education
institutions; therefore, goal setting came from problem analyzing and real needs.
Also strategy setting is not related to strategy of organization.
3) Planning concentrates on analyzing main and important responsibility in
education institutions and setting main teamwork for every process. Driving a
management process is Bottom-Up but the planning did not follow the planned
process. Planning lacks of teamwork process, coordination and think of the same
direction. Also personnel consideration was not related to the amount of work in
4) Budget plan was planned relating to school policy. The plan allows personnel to
use budget for appropriate teaching and learning but the budget was not enough
and the regulation limited to the power of teachers to make decisions.
5) Practical planning was adapted to practical strategies by using annual plans. The
plan was to decentralize the power to make decisions between administrator and
staff. Driving management process was Bottom-Up but the teamwork was
confusing and assignment was not clear.
6) Evaluation used was self-evaluation and completed every academic year to find
out school management progress. There was a project to support personnel to
evaluate their own teaching and learning in order to teach appropriately;
however, the performance of evaluation was not completed as planned.
2. These are results of developing change management model toward excellence of state
basic education institutions.
Part 1 Model Name
The idea of change management model toward excellence of the state basic
education institutions, researcher used Steve Trivett’s theory which is the drive of
live-long and balancing change. That idea is consisted of 4 types which are Top-
Down, Bottom-Up, Outside-In and Inside-Out by integrating the context of school
called “Integrated Four Perspective Model”. For better understanding see diagram
Integrated Four Perspective Model
Model of change management to the excellence toward state basic education institution
Elements of model of change management to the excellent toward state basic education
Part 1 „Model Name
Part 2 „Concept idea „principle „objective
Part 3 „Structure, „ process „change model
Part 4 „Operation strategy and factors to successful changing
Part 2 Concepts, principles and purposes
A change management toward the excellence of state education institutions is an
operation process of education institutions by school administration, staff and resources
to meet the objectives of school with higher quality and to be a role model for other
schools. Changing management to any particular condition needs 4 main aspects which
1) Restructuring or decreasing both staffing and placement
2) Increasing functions and services resulting in a segment or a new process and
more skills and knowledge
3) Changing leadership always leads to a new way of work and better environment
that leaders preferred.
4) Improving the capability of personnel to keep up with technology progression
and use that technology to improve working process to be more effective
Models of change management toward the excellence of state basic education
1) General principles go after education principle as follows:
1.1) Live-long learning for public
1.2) Allowing people to participate in education management
1.3) Continuing developing learning substances
2) Formats of principle are:
2.1) Change management is systematic operating process as planned
2.2) Cooperation management needs the good cooperation between
policy group and project planners and consistent performance.
2.3) Driving change model is a model affecting organization change
which consisted of Four Integration (Top-Down, Bottom-Up,
Outside-In and Inside-Out
2.4) Managing to the excellence is operation process leading to objective
by using resources to meet the quality which can be a role model for
2.5) Initiative strategy is an operation plan to meet the objectives under
the appropriate environment
2.6) Change factor is the factor that helps support the change
management to the success. The main factors are potential of
administrator, working format and personnel
Objectives of change management toward the excellence of state basic education
1) General Objective
1.1) To have model of change management toward the excellence of
state basic education institutions relating to Thai community and
changing ability under the power of making decision for every
1.2) To allow Ministry of Education to use data as information for
setting policy of change management toward the excellence of state
basic education institutions.
2) Specific Objective
2.1) To enhance the efficiency of school management.
2.2) To enable capability of administrators, teachers and staff.
Part 3 Structure, process and variations
3.1 Management Structure
The characteristic of management structure is Line and Staff Organization
Structure which is complicated and difficult to manage by one administrator; therefore,
other departments need to support and give advice. Nonetheless, consulting agency has
no power to order any of the specific function but to give advice and support; for
example: parent association, alumni association, parent network and basic education
committee. Those people help support school business under the regulation of Ministry
of Education B.E. 2546 Section 38 which indicated that those people can order in some
of the resolution agreed in the meeting such as annual curriculum and evaluation. From
the interview and open-ended questionnaire, the result showed principle assistant and
academic management group lack of efficiency to assign work to learning substances.
Also lacks of following up with their superiors, as a result, it is better to add a
commander line to learning substances which is an important part to develop education
quality of the education institutions. For better understanding see figure below.
Board of Trustees Basic Education Commission
School Management Committee
Internal Audit Unit
Deputy Deputy Deputy Deputy Deputy Deputy
Executive Executive Executive Executive Executive Executive
Group Group Group Group Group Group
วิชาการ chief งบประมาณ
chief chief chief chief chief
chief chief chief chief
Etc. Etc. Etc. Etc.
Learning Learning Learning Learning Learning Learning Learning Learning
substances substances substances substances substances substances substances substances
Model of Structure of the state basic education institution
The change management toward the excellence of state education institutions requires various
factors that support the leadership and the change process. Those factors are as follows.
1) Proper management of policy group and Program group
2) The management is the support and coordination of all members in the institution
including students and all members in the community.
3) The management emphasizes on teaching and student activities
4) The Policy group defines the objectives and analyzes the needs in the organization,
proposes, policies, manages the budget, and evaluates the performance.
5) Program group, consists of teachers and staffs, prepares the work plans and projects
6) Projects and work plans imply the resource management of mismanagement plans.
7) Implementation is the most important responsibility of Program group.
8) The responsibilities between Policy and Program groups are clearly defined.
However, some assignments may be overlapped.
Management process with coordination composes of ;
Step1) Goal Setting and Need Identification
Goal setting implies broad objectives and needs. There is no timeline. It also implies the results
and benefits for the students. Need Identification considers the gap between actual and planned
performance, then ranks the most important influence factors.
Step 2) Policy making
Policy making sets the statements that reflect the objectives. It will be used as guidance in work
plan. In general, the policy is created from education philosophy and objectives that are accepted
by education institutions.
Step 3) Planning
Planning is the pre-work process, what, when, how, and who to do.
Step 4) Budgeting
Budgeting is part of the financial analysis of Program Group. It requires budgeting data and
current state and needs of the education institutions.
Step 5) Implementing
The project is implemented by Program group when the planning is accepted and approved by all
Step 6) Evaluating
Evaluation is the data collection for decision making. The performance will be evaluated
during the process and after the work plan is completed.
The management with coordination will be effective when the results stimulate the new
objectives and new projects.
3.3 Structure of change
Integrated four perspective Model consists of 4 factors
1) The change in basic education institutions is the change in technology and culture.
2) There are four viewpoints in change management.
i) Top down ii) Bottom up iii) Outside In iv) Inside out
3) The process of coordination is goal setting and analysis of needs, policy making,
planning, budgeting, work plan and implementing, and evaluating.
4) PDCA in each organization are correlated and influenced by 4 drivers. Top-Down
view such as the ministry or committees office proposes the idea that work plan or projects may
be proposed from bottom up. ??? Outside-In such as technology. Today’s education institutions
have to adapt themselves to the new technology. Inside-Out such as teacher uses new and
interesting media to enhance the anti drugs campaign.
Therefore, the change management requires six steps of management with cooperation,
1) Goal setting and needs identification 2) Policies 3) Planning 4) Budgeting 5) Implementing 6)
Evaluating and PDCA quality management.
Part 4 Implementation strategy and change toward achievement
4.1 Implementation strategy
There are five implementation strategies toward the achievement
1) Organization restructuring initiating by the authority of the management.
2) Organization restructuring in specific area and giving the opportunity and
responsibility to appropriate staffs.
3) Organization restructuring by decentralizing that every member in the organization
can contribute to the change.
4) Mixed strategy is the integration of various strategies including command, work
assignment strategies, resource management, and quality management.
5) Internal organization development strategy is the development of all members by
sharing the problem solving and coaching via mentor-student relationship.
4.2 Factors of Changes to Success
Factors of Changes to Success
Factors that help change management to success mainly depend on Individual
performance of school administrators; therefore, factors of change management are consisted of
1) leadership 2) independence in the administration 3) The cooperation of staff 4) good and
appropriate project 5) Decentralization 6) Motivation 7) Vision 8) Personnel Administration 9)
Resource Management. 10) participation of staff 11) the external network 12) problem
management 13) continuing improvement 14) properly work 15) Institute. 16) organizational
The first four factors are the performance of school administrators who have leadership
skills and the independence of school management depends on school policy, cooperation of staff
and school administrator who plays a vital role in creating faith to the staff and personnel.
Moreover; each personnel must have good performance. Last factor is good and appropriate
project suitable for school Community and culture. In addition, the factors that contribute to the
changes to success are resource management, Participation among staff, External network,
Problem Management, Continuous development, appropriate operation, Institutional and
Organizational changes which are the factors that affect change management to success of
education institutions. School administrators play an important role in creating faith to the
personnel and the personnel themselves must have good performances. The last factor is good and
appropriate project relating to school community and culture. In addition, factors that contribute
to the changes to success are resource management, Participation among staff, External network,
problem Management, continuous development, appropriate operation, institutional and
organizational changes which are factors that affect change management to success of education
Discussion of the study
1. The study on current state of the development of a change management toward the
excellence of state basic education institutions is similar to Bartol 1998 that the change in
education institutions is the change or reengineering of the structure in the organization by using
new technology and clear communication and vision. Chueychum 2000, the most important
attribute in the management toward excellence is the management of organizational structure.
Runchaloren 2002, the most difficult challenge is the limited budget from the government and the
education institutions itself cannot find additional funds from other sources. Chaunnumsai 2009,
the change in technology and organizational goal influences the change in the organization.
2. The results of the development of a change management toward the excellence of
public basic education are similar to Vichitphatcharaporn 2004 that the strategies for
decentralization compose of ownership, tasks assignment, human resource development,
monitoring and evaluating, technology, resource management, coordination, integration, and
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