Relative Clauses (alsoRelative Clauses (also known as Adjective known as Adjective Clauses) Clauses) Jennifer Castillo Solis
What is an adjective clauses?• An adjective clauses modifies a noun. It describes or gives information about a noun.• An adjective clause follows a noun
Some examples are…• I met a man who is kind to everyone• I met a woman who is a famous poet• I met a girl who lives in Chicago.• What is the noun in each sentence?• What is the adjective clause?
How to Recognize an adjective clause• First it will contain a subject and a verb• Next it will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, that, which) or a relative adverb (when, where, why)
Recognizing an adjective clause• Finally, it will function as a adjective answering the questions• What kind• How many• Which one
Follow this pattern• Adjective clause will have one of these two patterns:• Relative noun or adverb+subject+verb• Relative pronoun as subject+ verb
There are two kinds of clauses:• Independent• Dependent
Independent Clauses• Independent clauses can complete a sentence all by themselves• Example:• We are studying grammar.• ¨We¨ is the Subject• ¨Are studying¨ is the verb
Questions and Independent Clauses• A complete question can also be considered an independent clause• Example:• What are you doing?• Have you lost your mind?
An order or command and Independent Clauses• A command or an order can also be considered an independent clause• Example:• ¨Stand up for your rights¨• ¨Get out right now¨
Dependent Clauses are different…• A dependent clauses needs something else in order to be complete• Example:• ¨After you finish…¨• Finish what? You need to know more information, this is the first half of a dependent clause
There are several kinds of dependent clauses:• Adverb Clauses• Noun Clauses• Adjective Clauses
Adverb Clauses• Adverb clauses are attached to dependent clauses• Example:• I will finish this presentation, after I take a cat nap.• The underlined part is the adverb clause
Noun Clauses• Noun clauses are dependent clauses that take the place of single nouns• They can be used anywhere nouns can be used: as subjects or objects
More on Noun Clauses• Usually begin with ¨that¨ or a wh- word ( who, whom, what, why, where, when)• ¨That¨ can be removed if there is another subject in the clause
Noun Clauses continued• Noun clauses can be used as subjects in place of simple nouns.• Example:• Mary saw the robbery.
Even more on noun clauses• In place of simple nouns a noun clause can also be used as objects after verbs or prepositions• Examples:• I believe you.• I belive you are right.
Adjective Clauses• An adjective clause is similar to a noun clause in the sense that wh- words and that are used as pronouns to introduce the clause
More on Adjective clauses• An adjective clause can be used to describe or modify a noun• Can be used in place of a single adjective• Should follow the noun it modifies
Practice time• What is the adjective clause in the following sentence?:• The man who is riding a bicycle is the new president of the company.
Answer….• The sentence was: The man who is riding a bicycle is the new president of the company.• The answer is: man who is riding a bicycle• The idea was ¨The man is the president of the company¨
One more try…• ¨Maria, whose birthday we are celebrating is transferring to the university next quarter.¨• What is the adjective clause?
The answer was…• ¨whose birthday we are celebrating¨• The original idea was Maria transferring to a university next quarter
Important to Remember• The adjective clause has to inmediately follow the word that it describes
Adjective reminder• If the adjective clause is placed in the wrong spot is becomes a dangling modifier• Example:• ¨My aunt is on vacation, who lives in Newark¨
The correct way should be…• My aunt who lives in Newark is on vacation.
There are two kinds of adjective clauses:• Restrictive• Non Restrictive
Sneak peak at restrictiveand non restrictive clauses:Restrictive Clause Non restrictive clauseare necessary for are interesting, likeidentification—tell gossip, but don’t“which one” identify or tell “which one”DO NOT have ALWAYS havecommas around clause commas around clause
Restrictive Clauses• Important to remember that restrictive clauses help in identifying• Telling which one is doing to activity
Example time• The man who is blowing the whistle is the coach.The restrictive clause identifies who the person that is blowing the whistle
Non Restrictive Clauses• Are not as specific in identifying as the restrictive clauses• Include the use of commas are the clause
Example time• The man was whistling which was annoying.• This is vague and does not indicate which man was whistling.
Coordination• Coordination is a useful way of connecting ideas that are roughly equal in importance. But often we need to show that one idea in a sentence is more important than another
Example:• How can this sentence be combined? My father is a superstitious man. He always sets his unicorn traps at night.
Answer…When the sentences are coordinated in this way, each main clause is given equal emphasis.My father is a superstitious man, and he always sets his unicorn traps at night.
Subordination• Subordination is needed to indicate that one part of a sentence is secondary (or subordinate) to another part.• Commonly used in adjective clauses
Subordination…• What if we want to place greater emphasis on one statement than on another?• We then have the option of reducing the less important statement to an adjective clause.
Example…• My father, who is a superstitious man, always sets his unicorn traps at night.
As a Reminder….• It is important to remember that relative clauses are quite extensive and can take some time to fully understand.• However practice makes perfect…