Teem Paulabien T. Aligada
Jean Marc Gaspard Itard (April 24, 1774, Oraison, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence – July 5, 1838) was a French physician born
Without a university education and working at a bank, he was forced to enter the army during the French Revolution but presented
himself as a physician at that time.
After successfully working as an assistant physician at a military hospital in Soliers, in 1796 he
was appointed deputy surgeon at Val-de-Grâce (Hôpitald'instruction des armées du Val-de-Grâce) military hospital in Paris, and in
1799 physician at the National Institution for Deaf Mutes.In Paris, Itard was a student of distinguished physician René Laennec,
inventor of the stethoscope (in 1816). Laennec was a few years younger but had a formal education at the university at Nantes and
later became a lecturer and professor of medicine at the Collège de France. Itard described pneumothorax in 1803; Laennec would
provide a fuller description of the condition in 1819.
In 1821, Itard published a major work on otology, describing the results of his medical research based on over 170 detailed cases.
He is credited with the invention of an Eustachian catheter that is referred to as "Itard's catheter". Numbness in the tympanic
membrane during otosclerosis has the eponymous name of "Itard-Cholewa Symptom".
In 1825, as the head physician at L'Institution Royale des sourds-muets, Itard was credited with describing the first case of Tourette
syndrome in Marquise de Dampierre, a woman of nobility.
He is known as an educator of Deaf-Mutes, and tried his educational theories in the celebrated case of Victor of Aveyron,
dramatized in the 1970 motion picture The Wild Child by François Truffaut. However, he was disappointed with the progress he
made with Victor.
Itard was known to conduct experiments on the Deaf students of the Saint-Jaques school in Paris in useless
attempts to restore their hearing.
Joseph Jules Dejerine (August 3, 1849 – February 26, 1917), was a French neurologist.
Joseph Jules Dejerine was born to French parents in Geneva, Switzerland, where his father was a carriage proprietor. During
theFranco-Prussian War (1870) Dejerine worked as a volunteer in a Geneva Hospital and in the spring of 1871 decided to pursue
hismedicine studies in Paris. Following qualification he rose the academic ranks and gained several awards. In 1877 he was
appointed to the HôpitalBicêtre, where he organized a pathological laboratory. He became professeuragrégé in 1886, and he found
the opportunity to concentrate his efforts on neurology. He worked at the HôpitalSalpêtrière from 1895, became professor of
the history of medicine in 1901 and received a senior appointement at the Salpêtrière in 1911 as professor of neurology at
the University of Paris, School of Medicine.Dejerine was one of the pioneers in the study of localisation of function in the brain,
having first shown that word blindness may occur as the result of lesions of the supramarginal and angular gyri.
In 1888 Dejerine married his student, Augusta Marie Klumpke, who had studied medicine in Paris and in 1887 had been the first
woman to become interne des hôpitaux. Dejerine died in 1917 at the age of 68 years, physically debilitated by the stress of work in a
military hospital during the World War I. The centenary of his birth was commemorated in 1949 at the fourth International
Neurological Congress in Paris, when Dejerine's pupil, André Thomas, gave a discourse on his mentor's life and achievements.
Dejerine's numerous publications span a period of more than 40 years. Like many eminent neurologists of his era, Dejerine became
interested in psychology in the later stages of his career and he is remembered as a proponent of the view that the personality of
the psychotherapist is crucial in any interaction with the patient."In man, emotion is almost everything and reason very little" (J.
In 1901, James Hinshelwood, a Scottish ophthalmologist and eye surgeon, published a study in which he used
the term word blindness. The study presented information about a number of children who had been referred to
Hinshelwood because they couldn't read. Hinshelwood posited that there was a region in the brain responsible for
reading difficulty and that this area was probably damaged. "By the term congenital word blindness, we mean a
congenital defect occurring in children with otherwise normal and undamaged brains characterised by a difficulty in
learning to read .and where the attempts to reach the child by the ordinary methods have completely failed"
(Hinshelwood, 1917).As part of the reading "syndrome" Hinshelwood described the children's letter reversals and
spelling problems, and reading comprehension problems.Hinshelwood also introduced the term strephosymbolia or
"twisted symbols" to refer to reading difficulties.
Samuel Torrey Orton (October 15, 1879–November 17, 1948) was an American physician who pioneered the study of learning
disabilities. He is best known for his work examining the causes and treatment of reading disability, or dyslexia.
Orton's interest in learning disabilities stemmed from his early work as a pathologist in Massachusetts, where he worked with adult
patients with brain damage.
This led him to study why some children with apparently intact neurological functioning have
language disabilities. In 1919, Orton was hired as the founding director of the State Psychopathic Hospital in Iowa City, Iowa, and
chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Iowa College of Medicine.
In 1925, Orton set up a 2-week mobile
clinic in Greene County, Iowa to evaluate students referred by teachers because they "were retarded or failing in their school work."
Orton found that 14 of the students who were referred primarily because they had great difficulty in learning to read, in fact had
near-average, average, or above-average IQ scores.
Orton's study of reading difficulties in children led him to hypothesize that these individuals have failed to establish appropriate
cerebral organization to support the association of visual words with their spoken forms.
He termed this difficulty strephosymbolia,
meaning "twisted symbols". This term stemmed from Orton's observation that many of the children he worked with tended to reverse
letters or transpose their order. Orton also reported that some of his research subjects could read more easily if they held pages up
to a mirror, and a few were rapid mirror writers.
Working in the 1920s, Orton did not have access to modern brain scanning equipment, but he knew from his work with brain
damaged adults that injuries to the left hemisphere produced symptoms similar to those he observed in children. Many of the
children Orton studied were also ambidextrous or had mixed handedness. This led Orton to theorize that the children's reading
problems stemmed from the failure of the left hemisphere to become dominant over the right. Some of Orton's theories about brain
structure and organization would later be confirmed by modern brain researchers, such as Dr. Albert Galaburda, who compared the
brains of deceased dyslexic and non-dyslexic adults in the late 1970s.
Dr. Orton's key contribution to the field of education was the concept of "multisensory" teaching–integrating kinesthetic (movement-
based) and tactile (sensory-based) learning strategies with teaching of visual and auditory concepts. Dr. Orton wanted a way to
teach reading that would integrate right and left brain functions. He was influenced by the work of fellow psychiatrist Grace Fernald,
who had developed a kinesthetic approach involving writing in the air and tracing words in large written or scripted format, while
simultaneously saying the names and sounds of the letters.
Later, Orton began working with psychologist Anna Gillingham, who introduced a systematic and orderly approach of categorizing
and teaching a set of 70 phonograms, single letters and letter pairs representing the 44 discrete sounds (or phonemes) found in
English. In the years since Dr. Orton's death in 1948, his name has come to be strongly associated with the Orton-
Gillingham teaching method, which remains the basis of the most prevalent form of remediation and tutoring for children with
dyslexia, or dyslexia-like symptoms, such as reading disabilities.
Grace Maxwell Fernald was born November 29, 1879 in Clyde, Ohio to Nettie (Barker) and James C. Fernald. Her father was an
author; among his many publications were Students' Standard Dictionary, Synonyms and Antonyms, English Grammar, Historic
English, and Expressive English. The family included four boys, Charles, Henry, Dana, and James, as well as a second girl, Mabel
Ruth. Both girls would go on to be psychologists.
Fernald received an A.B. degree in 1903 and an A.M. degree in 1905, both from Mount Holyoke College. She went on to spend
three years at Bryn Mawr College before moving to Chicago for doctoral training. Both Fernald sisters obtained their doctoral
degrees from the University of Chicago under James Rowland Angell; Grace Maxwell Fernald received hers in 1907. Her
dissertation was titled "The phenomena of peripheral vision as affected by the brightness of background and by dark adaptation."
Following her graduation from Chicago, Fernald took a year-long position as Assistant in Psychology and Education at Bryn Mawr
College. She would go on to become the first psychologist appointed to work in the Juvenile Court in Chicago serving for a year in
1909 as Assistant Director of the Chicago Psychopathic Institute.
Around 1911, Fernald joined the faculty at the State Normal School, later the University of California, Los Angeles where she would
remain for the duration of her career. Fernald began at the institution as the Director of the Psychology Laboratory. In 1918 she was
named Assistant Professor of Psychology; in 1920 Associate Professor; in 1941 Professor; and from 1945 on Professor emeritus. In
1921 Fernald founded the Clinical School of the University of California, Los Angeles and served as its Director until her death. The
Clinical School served both as an aid to children and adults with learning disabilities as well as a laboratory for research on related
Fernald's research focused on developments in learning techniques. Building on the earlier work of Seguin and Montessori, Fernald
developed a kinaesthetic approach to teaching reading. This method, sometimes called the "Fernald Technique," involves teaching
students to read whole words rather than sounding out the individual syllables. A description of her method was published as a co-
authored article with Helen Keller in the Journal of Educational Research in 1921 and later as a book in 1936 under the title On
certain language disabilities: Their nature and treatment. Fernald's most prominent book was Remedial Techniques in Basic School
Subject published originally in 1943. Her work at the Clinical School was also the feature of an article in the July 1948 issue
of Time magazine.
Following her retirement in 1945 from the University, Fernald remained active with the Clinical School and founded a private clinic
and clinical school in Brentwood. She received a number of honours during her lifetime including being named Fellow of the
American Psychological Association, American Association of Applied Psychology, and American Association for the Advancement
Kurt Goldstein was born on 6 November 1878 in Kattowicz, upper Silesia, Poland,
Which formed at that time a part of Germany. After attending the local public school, he went to the humanistic Gymnasium in
Breslau. At the universities of Breslau and Heidelberg, he studied philosophy and literature. He studied medicine under Carl
Wernicke, who stimulated his interest in aphasia, graduating M.D. in 1903. He then became a post-doctoral assistant at the
Frankfurt neurological institute, where he practiced comparative neurology in the neuropathological laboratory under Ludwig
Edinger. In 1906, he moved to Königsberg, where he worked in psychiatry and neurology, and became acquainted with the
Würzburgschool of experimental psychology, which emphasizes “imageless thought”. In 1914, Goldstein returned to Frankfurt as
Edinger’s first assistant. He soon established his own Institute for Research on the After-Effects of Brain Injury. His very productive
collaboration with Adhémar Gelb, an experimental psychologist whose strong point was visual perception, also started here.
Goldstein succeeded Edinger in the Neurology chair at Frankfurt. In 1930, he left Frankfurt for Berlin, where he became director of
a large neuropsychiatric clinic and a professor at the university in the department of Neurology and Psychiatry. In 1933, Goldstein
was denouned to the Nazis by an assistant and charged with leftist sympathis and Jewishness. Together with Eva Rothmann, a
former student who was to become his wife, Goldstein went to The United States in 1935, at the ate of 56. He started a new career
in New York at Columbia University, the New York Psychiatric Institute, and the Montefiori Hospital. In 1938, he traveled to Boston
to deliver the William James Lectures and from 1940 to 1945, he served as clinical professor of Neurology at Tufts University,
Medford, Mass. He then returned to New York because of his wife’s illness. In 1965, Goldstein suffered a stroke with right
hemiplegia and global aphasia. He died on September 19, three weeks post onset, leaving over 200 publications, mostly in German
and English and spanning six decades. They include work on the relationship between circumscribed cortical injuries and sensory
and motor defects, problems of perceptual disturbances and agnosia, cerebellar function and its relation to tonus, localization on the
cerebral cortex and the problem of aphasia.