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The Physics of Sound
The Nature of Sound
• SOUND is a longitudinal wave that is created by
vibrating objects that is capable of producing a sen...
The Speed of Sound
• Since sound is a mechanical wave, then its
velocity is affected by the kind of medium that it
travels...
Doppler Effect
The apparent change in pitch due to the
relative motion of the source and/or the
observer.
Characteristic of Sound
Sound may be described by 3 perceptual (as
perceived by human senses – auditory)
characteristics: ...
Characteristics of Sound
Pitch
• PITCH refers to the highness or lowness of a
sound, and therefore depends on the frequenc...
Characteristics of Sound
Loudness
• This is scientifically described as sound
intensity, the greater the intensity, the lo...
Characteristics of Sound
Quality
• QUALITY, a.k.a. timbre, is the property of a tone
that distinguishes it from another to...
Sound as a Wave
• Refraction (bending) – sound bends due to temperature
difference
• Diffraction (scattering) –the sound w...
SONAR: Sound Navigation and Ranging
Altimeter (Altitude Meter)
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  1. 1. The Physics of Sound
  2. 2. The Nature of Sound • SOUND is a longitudinal wave that is created by vibrating objects that is capable of producing a sensation in our auditory system. • It is also called pressure wave because it consists of a series of high pressure (compression) and low pressure (rarefaction) regions. • The audible range of sound frequency for humans is from 20Hz – 20 000Hz. Sounds with frequencies below 20Hz are called infrasounds and the ones above frequencies of 20 000Hz are called ultrasounds.
  3. 3. The Speed of Sound • Since sound is a mechanical wave, then its velocity is affected by the kind of medium that it travels through. • For every phase of matter, there is a corresponding equation that describes the speed of sound. • through air: v = 331 + 0.6Tc ( Tc is temperature in C ) (in m/s)
  4. 4. Doppler Effect The apparent change in pitch due to the relative motion of the source and/or the observer.
  5. 5. Characteristic of Sound Sound may be described by 3 perceptual (as perceived by human senses – auditory) characteristics: pitch, quality, and loudness. These 3 characteristics correspond to 3 physical (scientific) characteristics: frequency, waveform, and intensity.
  6. 6. Characteristics of Sound Pitch • PITCH refers to the highness or lowness of a sound, and therefore depends on the frequency of the sounding object. It is also related to the wavelength and the energy that it carries. high pitch -- high frequency -- short waves -- high energy low pitch --- low frequency --- long waves --- low energy
  7. 7. Characteristics of Sound Loudness • This is scientifically described as sound intensity, the greater the intensity, the louder the sound, measured in decibels. ▫ Threshold of hearing – 0 db ▫ Threshold of pain – 120 db • Sound Intensity ( I ) refers to the energy the sound delivers to a unit area of a surface per unit time. ▫ Proportional to amplitude ▫ Inversely proportional to distance from source
  8. 8. Characteristics of Sound Quality • QUALITY, a.k.a. timbre, is the property of a tone that distinguishes it from another tone of the same pitch and loudness produced by a different musical instrument. • It is described by the kind of waveform that resulted from the impositions of its component frequencies.
  9. 9. Sound as a Wave • Refraction (bending) – sound bends due to temperature difference • Diffraction (scattering) –the sound wave scatters upon passing through an opening • Interference (meeting) – could be destructive or constructive e.g. noise and sound cancellation/reinforcement technology • Reflection (bouncing) – reflection of sound is called an ECHO, a series or multiple echoes is REVERBERATIONS.
  10. 10. SONAR: Sound Navigation and Ranging
  11. 11. Altimeter (Altitude Meter)
  • QuynhVanLe

    Feb. 5, 2017

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