Cell organelles


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Cell organelles

  1. 1. Cell Structures, Functions and Transport<br />
  2. 2. Recall<br />What makes up living things?<br />How do we study cells and what tool do we use?<br />
  3. 3. Familiar?<br />
  4. 4. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells<br />
  5. 5. Prokaryotic Cells<br />Came from the Greek word pro : before and karyon : kernel or nucleus<br />Prokaryotes lack a membrane-bounded nucleus.<br />
  6. 6. Diagram<br />DNA<br />
  7. 7. Eukaryotic Cells <br />Came from the Greek words meaning true nucleus.<br />Thus, eukaryotic cells have nucleus and membrane bound organelles.<br />
  8. 8. Diagram: Cheek cells<br />Plasma Membrane<br />Nucleus<br />
  9. 9. THE LIVING CELL<br />
  10. 10. How do animal cells specialize?<br />In animals, the first type of cells in the developing embryo are stem cells. These are unspecialized cells that go on to form all the different cell types in the adult.<br />stem cell<br />red blood cell<br />sperm cell<br />muscle cell<br />nerve cell<br />
  11. 11. ORGANELLES<br />structures in a cell that act like “little organs.”<br />They perform SPECIFIC function inside a cell.<br />Found only in EUKARYOTIC cells.<br />
  12. 12. Cytoplasm<br />Nucleolus<br />Nucleus<br />Animal Cell<br />
  13. 13. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Nucleus<br />Nickname: “The Control Center”<br />Function: holds the DNA<br />Parts:<br />Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes<br />
  14. 14. The Nucleus<br />Nucleolus<br />Chromatin<br />Nuclear Envelope<br />www.nerdscience.com<br />
  15. 15. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Ribosomes<br />Function: makes proteins<br />Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic<br />
  16. 16. Ribosomes<br />Ribosome<br />www.nerdscience.com<br />7-2<br />
  17. 17. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)<br />Nickname: “Roads”<br />Function: The internal delivery system of the cell <br />
  18. 18. Endoplasmic Reticulum<br />2 Types:<br />Rough ER: <br />Rough appearance because it has ribosomes<br />Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes<br />Smooth ER:<br />NO ribosomes<br />Function: makes fats or lipids<br />
  19. 19. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)<br />Rough ER<br />Smooth ER<br />www.nerdscience.com<br />7-2<br />
  20. 20. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Golgi Complex<br />Nickname: The shippers<br />Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell<br />Appearance: stack of pancakes<br />
  21. 21. Golgi Apparatus<br />Golgi Apparatus<br />
  22. 22. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomes)<br />Nickname: “Clean-up Crews”<br />Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells<br />
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Mitochondria<br />Nickname: “The Powerhouse”<br />Function: Energy formation<br />Breaks down food to make ATP<br />ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Mitochondria<br />Mitochondria<br />
  27. 27. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Centrioles<br />Considered to important in animal cells for the production of spindle fibers used in their cell division. NOT FOUND IN PLANTS.<br />Cytoskeleton<br />Network of protein filaments<br />Structural support<br />
  28. 28. Animal Cell<br />
  29. 29. Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!!<br />
  30. 30. How do plant cells specialize?<br />Unlike animals, many plant cells retain the ability to differentiate and specialize throughout their life. These cells are found in tissues called meristems.<br />meristem cell<br />leaf cell<br />root cell<br />sieve cell<br />
  31. 31. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Plant Cell<br />Section 7-2<br />Large Vacuole<br />Chloroplasts<br />Cell wall<br />Go to Section:<br />
  32. 32. Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />Large Central Vacuoles<br />Function: stores water<br />This is what makes lettuce crisp<br />When there is no water, the plant wilts<br />
  33. 33. Chloroplasts<br />Function: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell<br />Green in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment<br />Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />
  34. 34. What are chloroplasts?<br />thylakoids<br />Chloroplasts are the site of photosynthesis in plant cells.<br />A green pigment in chloroplasts called chlorophyll absorbs the energy in sunlight.<br />This energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.<br />Chlorophyll is embedded in disk-like structures called thylakoids, which are arranged into stacks.<br />
  35. 35. Chloroplast<br />membrane<br />thylakoid<br />stroma<br />
  36. 36. Cell Wall<br />Function: provides support and protection to the cell membrane<br />Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells<br />Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function<br />
  37. 37. Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells<br />Plant Cell<br />Section 7-2<br />Large Vacuole<br />Chloroplasts<br />Cell wall<br />Go to Section:<br />
  38. 38. Which organelle?<br />
  39. 39. Plant Cells<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Evaluation: Comparing Plant and Animal Cells<br />