Missouri Grade Level Expectations: Grade 9-12 Information and Communications Technology Literacy 1 Follow an inquiry process to construct new understandings, draw conclusions, and create new knowledge A. Follow, monitor, and evaluate inquiry process: a. Identify an information need. b. Access prior knowledge relevant to the needed information. c. Identify additional information to meet the need. d. Locate relevant sources and select information appropriate to the problem or question. g. Evaluate the results. h. Use critical thinking skills to adapt process, as necessary, to fulfill purpose. 2 Determine nature and intent of information needed A. Identify how intended audience and purpose affect information needed. B. Focus questions/keywords a. Evaluate with minimal assistance, prior knowledge to develop questions and identify key words to focus and guide information seeking. b. Revise or clarify focus questions and key words/phrases as information is gathered. 3. Access information efficiently and effectively A. Source Selection a. Locate multiple primary and secondary sources of various media using appropriate organizational tools. b. Select material appropriate to student’s reading ability. B. Use the navigational features of sources to locate appropriate information. 4. Evaluate information critically and competently. A. Analyze and evaluate media techniques used to convey the message. B. Relevance a. Analyze information to determine relevance in relationship to the topic. b. Analyze impact of timeliness when selecting sources. C. Reliability a. Analyze the source to determine its credibility. b. Evaluate accuracy of information by determining whether it contradicts or verifies other sources. c. Evaluate for bias, with minimal assistance, by analyzing viewpoint(s) conveyed in source. d. Evaluate the copyright date of information to best meet the information need. D. Comprehensiveness a. Analyze and evaluate information to determine usefulness, including ability to read, comprehend and make meaning of the information. b. Analyze and evaluate gathered information for gaps and weaknesses. c. Locate additional information as needed. 5. Use Information effectively and creatively B. Synthesize, with minimal assistance, information to make meaning (draw conclusions, formulate hypothesis, make inferences, etc.). C. Information presentation b. Organize information in a logical arrangement appropriate to format, audience and purpose. 6. Practice ethical, legal, and safe use of information and technology A. Digital citizenship a. Demonstrate ethical behaviors (personal and social) when using information and technology. B. Academic Honesty a. Follow copyright laws, school district policies and other regulations while accessing and using sources, including print and digital. b. Practice strategies to avoid plagiarism. c. Document each source using appropriate citation format (e.g., author, title, copyright, URL, publisher, and place of publication).
There are over a trillion web pages to search. According to the IDC, a top provider of Internet research, users are successful only 50 percent of the time (Barker). There has to be a better way to search.
Basically four areas to search for information. We are the most familiar with search engines.
Search engines are powered by “bots.” They go out and search for keywords and meta descriptions placed on the Internet. When a keyword is entered, whatever results are generated come from the latest searching done by the bots. Results are based entirely upon when the bots visited a site and returned the information, so if a bot hasn’t visited a site in a while it won’t come up as a recent search. Google and Yahoo are the two largest search engines. Yahoo claims to have access to over 20 billion web objects (“Recommended”). Google does not provide a numerical claim, but it is most likely the largest and it is the most popular engine. One of the more recent additions are the meta engines which search multiple engines. They do work, but they are not as deeply detailed when finding information.
So let’s look at some more specific ways of searching. First there are search engines that work as indexes or directories. The phone book is the most popular directory although I wonder how long we will continue to receive them now that we can find numbers on the web. This is the BUBL catalogue and it is a British web site that uses the Dewey Decimal Classification just as our library does. When you open the site you’ll see the break down of information by category.
If we enter social sciences, it will break that category into more in-depth categories. Let’s visit sociology.
Again, we have categories within that category. We’ll go into anthropology.
Now we have reached the results of our search. The left column has the names of the titles and the right column has a brief description of each. We’ll go to African Lives.
Now, we have a series of eight articles. This a really nice graphic that would appeal to students, also. Again, we’ll enter the first one - Dinka in Sudan.
This the article. You’ll notice it is from the Washington Post, and it is much longer than what I have on the screen. Notice on the left side there is also a list of related items. Using indexes and directories might be helpful for those students who really don’t have a clear idea of what they might want to explore. This provides a way for them to browse by subject area and, hopefully, narrow down something they would like.
Now we’re on to intuitive searching. There are a couple of ways that this can work. The first one is to plug in any name you want to search and simply add the domain name after it. Each one will pull up different results. Let’s try the word Shakespeare and see what comes up.
The first is .com and is a site dedicated to William Shakespeare. The second is .net and it, too, is about William Shakespeare as is the third site .info. However, it is under construction so it wouldn’t help much.
The top one is .org and is a site dedicated to the Shakespeare & Company play theater group. The .biz site doesn’t really yield anything useful. Now although this site reads .com, it is actually what came up with the .us domain, and it is dedicated to Shakespeare quotes, gifts and resources. The .ws domain, which stands for web site, yields a site of advertising and none of it has to do with the name of Shakespeare. I won’t lie. This isn’t my favorite way to search. It feels a little too Las Vegas to me because it feels like you’re throwing the dice and hoping to run across something by chance, but it might appeal to some of your students.
The second option for intuitive searching is by being more specific. So instead of just placing a search term into the search and looking over the web, we can also narrow it down to these categories: images, videos, maps, news, shopping , books, scholar, etc. Each of these will turn up different items as well although there will be more options than the first way of using intuitive searching. We’ll continue using Shakespeare as the term.
This is the what the web search would produce. You’ll notice we do have some news, some books and then a few websites. Now if we do intuitive searching we narrow down those options. This is the search with just images, and this one is with videos. The last one is what we get if we search by news.
Even a search under maps yields a result for Shakespeare which is located in New Mexico. If someone wants to shop for Shakespeare items, they can be found. Here we find a book, an action figure, and a tool.
Google Scholar is an awesome way to search intuitively. Notice here the first five hits are books. If you’ll notice here on the left, four of them can be accessed immediately. Three are available on the web and one is a pdf. One doesn’t even have to go to the library to get the book. Granted this doesn’t work for new books, but more and more books that are in the public domain are being made available on the web for free. If you’ll also notice we can search even more intuitively. So we have options such as articles and patents, articles without patents, legal opinions and journals, federal cases, Missouri cases and we can do an advanced search.
So that’s intuitive searching. Let’s move on to our last search technique - deep web.
In 2008, Google hit a landmark by adding its one trillionth web address (Wright). With the deep web estimated to be approximately 500 times larger, it is most likely has more than 500 trillion pages. In other words, 99.8 percent of the web is unavailable to traditional search engines and subject directories (Barker).
Marcus Zillman is a renowned international internet expert who has devoted much of his life to studying the Internet especially the deep web. Subject Tracer Information bots is a highly sophisticated computer program that uses artificial intelligence to track and retrieve the most relevant information sources.
The Virtual Private Library list subject resources that have been found by the bots. The pages are up-dated on a regular basis. The home page lists numerous information blogs to start off on a search. So let’s look through one of the blogs.
Here we are on the Business Intelligence Resources blog. The first two links are for downloads of essentially what you see on the web page. All of these databases maintain a wealth of information, and rarely would you find any of these resources on the surface web.
This one on the 50 Web Tools is really interesting if you are a business person who is trying to discover information on anyone competing with a web site you have created. If you can’t find your subject in one area be sure and check in others. I found Journalism listed under business. That is not where I initially looked because it didn’t really cross my mind that it would be in that area.
Two web directories that contain invisible web pages is the Internet Public Library and Infomine. One can also use Google or any other search engine to potentially locate databases simply by adding the term “database” after the search term (“Invisible”). However, keep in mind that the number of databases available will be far less than using the Virtual Private Library.
The Internet Public Library is a search directory, so we plug in the term photosynthesis and notice how two of the three hits are from educational institution’s databases. The third site, FT Exploring, is not part of an educational institution but it is about education, and it has one several awards. Thus, all three are legitimate sites.
The deep web is the future of Internet searching. We are going to see more and more about this issue. There are a resources for you to find more information. The Online College Blog provides 100 Tips and Tools for Researching the Deep Web (Miller). Several search engines are provided on this site. Web Lens is a companion resource developed by journalist Pam Blackstone. The site provides a subject resource search tools to use and information about deep web searching. There are a ton of sites by Zillman. Since he has pioneered searching the deep web, he has also created several sites under different domains to help users do better searches. This is one of his blogs. It is updated regularly and has a vast amount of information.
Deep Web <ul><li>Invisible Web, Dark Web </li></ul><ul><li>or the Hidden Web </li></ul><ul><li>“ Vast reservoir of information stored in databases and sometimes dynamically generated only upon request, making it inaccessible to search engines, subject directories, or even intuitive searches” (Barker). </li></ul>Graphic by Graur Razvan Ionut - http://www.freedigitalphotos.net /
<ul><li>Estimated to be approximately 500 times larger than the surface web. </li></ul>Graphic by Graur Razvan Ionut - http://www.freedigitalphotos.net /
Additional Resources for Searching the Deep Web <ul><li>The Online College Blog </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.online-college-blog.com/index.php features/100-useful-tips-and-tools-to-research-the-deep-web > </li></ul><ul><li>Web Lens </li></ul><ul><li>< http:// www.weblens.org/invisible.html > </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus P. Zillman </li></ul><ul><li>< http://marcuszillman.blogspot.com / > </li></ul>
Works Cited <ul><li>“ 50 Web Tools to Keep Tabs on Your Competitors.” BSchool.com Business Schools Directory . BSchool.com. 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 2008. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.biresources.info/ > </li></ul><ul><li>“ 300 Social Sciences.” BUBL Link. Centre for Digital Library Research. Strathclyde University. n.d. Web. 3 </li></ul><ul><li>May 2010. < http://www.bubl.ac.uk/link/linkbrowse.cfm?menuid=2822 > </li></ul><ul><li>“ 301-306 Social Sciences.” BUBL Link. Centre for Digital Library Research. Strathclyde University. n.d. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.bubl.ac.uk/link/linkbrowse.cfm?menuid=2824 > </li></ul><ul><li>“ 301 Anthropology.” BUBL Link. Centre for Digital Library Research. Strathclyde University. n.d. Web. 3 May </li></ul><ul><li>2010. < http://www.bubl.ac.uk/link/linkbrowse.cfm?menuid=2854 > </li></ul><ul><li>“ African Lives.” BUBL Link. Centre for Digital Library Research. Strathclyde University. n.d. </li></ul><ul><li>Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/africanlives/ > </li></ul><ul><li>Barker, Melissa S. Top 10 Internet Search Tips. Melissa Barker: Public Relations and Marketing/Advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>N.p. Aug. 2009. Web. 2 May 2010. < http://www.melissabarker.com/publications/publications.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>Buckley, Stephen. “Dinka in Sudan: Loss of Culturally Vital Cattle Leaves Dinka Tribe Adrift in Refugee </li></ul><ul><li>Camps.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. 24 Aug. 1997. Web. 3 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/africanlives/sudan/sudan.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Catalogue of Internet Resources.” BUBL Link. Centre for Digital Library Research. Strathclyde University. n.d. </li></ul><ul><li>Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.bubl.ac.uk/ > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Education Categories.” Shakespeare.biz. N.p. n.d. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.shakespeare.biz/ > </li></ul>
<ul><li>GoDaddy.com . GoDaddy.com. 2010. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.shakespeare.ws/ > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Invisible or Deep Web: What it is, How to Find it, and Its Inherent Ambiguity.” Finding Information on the </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: A Tutorial. UC Berkeley Library. 2010. Web. 2 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li> < http://library.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/InvisibleWeb.htmll > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Recommended Search Engines.” Finding Information on the Internet: A Tutorial. UC Berkeley Library. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Web. 2 May 2010. < http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/SearchEngines.html > </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, Alisa. “100 Useful Tips and Tools to Research the Deep Web.” OnLine College Blog. N.p. n.d. Web. 3 </li></ul><ul><li>May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.online-college-blog.com/index.php/features/100-useful-tips-and-tools-to-research-the-deep-web/ > </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare and Company . Shakespeare and Company. 2010. Web. 3 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare.com .Dana Spradley. 2010. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://shakespeare.com/ > </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare.info . N.p. n.d. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://shakespeare.info/ > </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare.net. Name Administration, Inc. 2007. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://shakespeare.net/ > </li></ul><ul><li>ShakesSpirit.com . ShakesSpirit.com. 2000. Web 3 May 2010. < http://www.shakespeare.us/ > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Searching the Invisible Web (Hidden Web, Deep Web).” Web Lens. Blackstone Marketing and </li></ul><ul><li>Communications. 2007. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.weblens.org/invisible.html > </li></ul><ul><li>“ Social Sciences.” BUBL Link. Centre for Digital Library Research. Strathclyde University. n.d. </li></ul><ul><li>Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.bubl.ac.uk/ > </li></ul><ul><li>Wright, Alex. “Exploring a ‘Deep Web’ That Google Can’t Grasp.” New York Times. 22 Feb. 2009. Web. 3 May 2010. < http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/23/technology/internet/23search.html?_r=2&ref=business > </li></ul>
<ul><li>Zillman, Marcus P. An Abbreviated Biography of International Internet Expert, Author, Keynote Speaker and </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Consultant Marcus P. Zillman, M.S., A.M.H.A. 2010. Web. 3 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>< http://marcuszillman.blogspot.com /> </li></ul><ul><li>Zillman, Marcus P. “Business Intelligence Resources.” Virtual Private Library . 2010. Web. 3 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>< http://www.biresources.info/ > </li></ul><ul><li>Zillman, Marcus P. “Virtual Private Library Information and Specifications - Subject Tracer Information Blogs.” </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Library . 2010. Web. 3 May 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http://virtualprivatelibrary.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.html > </li></ul>