Unit 1 matter and physical chemical changes NOTES

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  • (colloid) Fog  scatters light… that is why it is dangerous to drive in the fog. Liquid particles are dispersed in a gas. NO HIGH BEAMS in the FOG!
  • Specific Heat  The heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a given substance by a given amount (usually one degree)
  • Thermite Reaction  Iron (III) oxide = molten iron.
  • Unit 1 matter and physical chemical changes NOTES

    1. 1.  Matter: anything that has mass andtakes up space Mass – the amount of matter in something. Volume – the amount of space somethingoccupies.Weight = amount of matter + Effect of GravityReviewing MATTER
    2. 2. Matter, Mass, and Weight Do you think you would weigh thesame if you stood on the surface ofthe planet, Mercury? Mercury is the smallest planet, andthe planet closest to the sun. Thegravity of Mercury is 38% of Earthsgravity. To calculate your weight onMercury, multiply your weight by 0.38.
    3. 3. Matter ClassificationMatter FlowchartPure SubstancesMixtures
    4. 4. A. Matter FlowchartMATTERCan it be physicallyseparated?HomogeneousMixture(solution)HeterogeneousMixture Compound ElementMIXTURE PURE SUBSTANCEyes noCan it be chemicallydecomposed?noyesIs the compositionuniform?noyesColloids Suspensions
    5. 5. A. Matter Flowchart Examples: graphite Trail Mix sugar (sucrose-C12H22O11) paint sodaelementhetero. mixturecompoundhetero. mixturesolution
    6. 6. B. Pure Substances Element composed of identical atoms EX: copper wire, aluminum foil
    7. 7. B. Pure Substances Compound composed of 2 or moreelements in a fixed ratio properties differ from thoseof individual elements EX: table salt (NaCl)
    8. 8. B. Pure Substances For example…Two different compounds,each has a definite composition.Law of definite proportions: Regardless of the amount, acompound is always composed of the same elements in theproportions by mass.
    9. 9. C. Mixtures Variable combination of 2 or more puresubstances.Heterogeneous Homogeneous
    10. 10. C. Mixtures (Homogeneous) Solution (homogeneous) Dissolving homogeneous very small particles No Tyndall effectTyndall Effect particles don’t settle EX: rubbing alcohol
    11. 11. Tyndall EffectDisperses / ScattersLight
    12. 12. C. Mixtures (heterogenous) Colloid heterogeneous medium-sized particles Tyndall effect particles don’t settle EX: milk
    13. 13. C. Mixtures Suspension heterogeneous large particles particles settle EX: sand and water
    14. 14. C. Mixtures Examples: Whipped Cream muddy water fog saltwater Italian saladdressingcolloidsuspensioncolloidsolutionsuspension
    15. 15. What is a property? Property: acharacteristic ofa substance thatcan be observed
    16. 16. Physical PropertyExamples:• luster• malleability: the abilityto be hammered into athin sheet• ductility: the ability tobe stretched into a wire• melting point• boiling point• density• solubility• specific heat•Mass•Volume•Length•color
    17. 17. Special Physical Properties Melting point: the temperatureat which a substance changesfrom a solid to a liquid at a givenpressure.water = 0oC Boiling point: the temperatureat which a substance changesfrom a liquid to a gas at a givenpressure.water = 100oC
    18. 18. Chemical Properties Chemical property: a propertythat can only be observed bychanging the identity of thesubstance.Examples:•flammability•ability to rust•reactivity with vinegar•The ability to NOT react
    19. 19. Physical Vs. ChemicalProperties1) The melting point of water is 00C.2) Ethanol burns in the presence of oxygen.3) Potassium explodes when placed in water.4) Oil has a very high viscosity.5) Gold does not react when placed in water.6) Nonmetals are very brittle.7) The density of aluminum is 2.70 g/mL8) Iron rusts in our atmosphere.
    20. 20. Physical and Chemical ChangesChange: the act of alteringa substance
    21. 21. Physical Change Physical change: a change thatoccurs that does not change theidentity of the substance Form Size State or phase Dissolving
    22. 22. Physical Change Examples: Melting ice (change in state or phase) Freezing Kool-aid (change in state or phase) Tearing paper (change in form or size) Boiling water (change in state or phase)
    23. 23. Chemical Changes Chemical change: a change thatoccurs causing the identity of thesubstance to change Burning Digesting food Reacting with other substances A chemical change is called achemical reaction.
    24. 24. Chemical Changes Cont’d Indicators of a chemical change:Development of lightDevelopment of heatDevelopment of a gasColor changeFormation of a precipitate
    25. 25. Is it Physical or Chemical?Change Physical ChemicalMelting cheeseBurning woodMilk souringWadding up paperBicycle rusting

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