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An Ontology Design Pattern
to Define Explanations
Ilaria Tiddi, Mathieu d’Aquin, Enrico Motta
Knowledge Media Institute, T...
General problem
We need of a formal definition for an explanation
Explanations?
• many systems are based on them (data
ana...
Motivation: Dedalo
Why?
Patterns (observable regularities in data) need to
be explained by an expert to be fully understoo...
Motivation: Dedalo
✚ people look for Daniel Radcliffe at specific times
Why is Daniel Radcliffe popular only at specific t...
Motivation: Dedalo
✚ people look for Daniel Radcliffe at specific times
✚ because a new Harry Potter movie is out
Without ...
Motivation: Dedalo
✚ people look for Daniel Radcliffe at specific times
✚ because a new Harry Potter movie is out
✪ and be...
Challenge
Dedalo needs a formal definition of an
explanation
• what components ?
• which interactions?
to differentiate it...
Approach
Philosophy
Neuroscience
Linguistics
Anthropology
Psychology
Artificial
Intelligence
How were “explanations” defin...
Contributions/1
Philosophy
Neuroscience
Linguistics
Sociology
Psychology
Computer
Science
Surveying “explanations”
in Cogn...
Contributions/2
Philosophy
Neuroscience
Linguistics
Sociology
Psychology
Computer
Science
Representing the
structure as an...
Explanation in Philosophy
Philosophy – asking questions and checking answers
Putting in a relation
✚ an event
✪ some initi...
Explanation in Psychology
Psychology – understanding the human cognitive
processes
Producing
✪ behavioural changes
✚ to a ...
Explanation in Neuroscience
Neuroscience – understanding the human brain
Describing a relationship between
✚ an input (cau...
Explanation in Computer Science
Computer science – performing human operations with
machines
Generating
✚ some new knowled...
Explanation in Sociology
Sociology – linking human processes and the sociocultural world
Deriving
✚ social regularities
✚ ...
Explanation in Linguistics
Linguistics – explaining the nature of the human language
Deriving
✚ grammar regularities
✚ fro...
Survey Conclusion
Disciplines change
The structure and interactions remain the same
✚ ✚ ✪ 
This structure of an explanati...
part:Event
The Explanation ODP
✚ ✚
When ✚ happens, then, due to a given set of circumstances ✪, ✚ will occur
too because o...
Language
Universal
GrammarLinguistic Fact
Language
The Explanation ODP - Examples
Representing models in Linguistics with ...
Law
PhenomenonPhenomenon
Condition
The Explanation ODP - Examples
Representing models in Philosophy with E-ODP
✚
✪

✚ Exp...
PriorKnowledge
NewKnowledgeObservation
Constraint
The Explanation ODP - Examples
Representing models in Computer Science w...
Application on Dedalo
Given a data pattern ✚
DedaloExpl Data Patternposterior
when people
search for Daniel
Radcliffe
post...
Application on Dedalo
Given a data pattern ✚
Find some candidate anterior events ✚ in Linked Data
DedaloExpl Data Patternp...
Application on Dedalo
Given the two events ✚ and ✚
DedaloExpl Data Patternposterior
when people
search for Daniel
Radcliff...
Application on Dedalo
Given the two events ✚ and ✚
Find in Linked Data the context ✪ in which ✚ and ✚ occur
DedaloExpl Dat...
Conclusions and Future Work
Identifying what is an explanation
Surveying how cognitive sciences have defined it
Formally m...
Many thanks!
Do you need (more) explanations?
ilaria.tiddi@open.ac.uk
live demo: http://linkedu.eu/dedalo/demo
@IlaTiddi
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An Ontology Design Pattern to Define Explanations

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Presentation held @Knowledge Capture (K-CAP) 2015 in Palisades, NY
Presenting how explanations have been defined in Cognitive Science and abstracting an ontological model from it

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An Ontology Design Pattern to Define Explanations

  1. 1. An Ontology Design Pattern to Define Explanations Ilaria Tiddi, Mathieu d’Aquin, Enrico Motta Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, UK @IlaTiddi
  2. 2. General problem We need of a formal definition for an explanation Explanations? • many systems are based on them (data analysis) • vague definition • process, components, interactions are undefined
  3. 3. Motivation: Dedalo Why? Patterns (observable regularities in data) need to be explained by an expert to be fully understood Transformed Data Patterns Pre- processing Data Mining Interpreting Automatically explaining patterns of data
  4. 4. Motivation: Dedalo ✚ people look for Daniel Radcliffe at specific times Why is Daniel Radcliffe popular only at specific times? live demo: http://linkedu.eu/dedalo/demo
  5. 5. Motivation: Dedalo ✚ people look for Daniel Radcliffe at specific times ✚ because a new Harry Potter movie is out Without knowing who Daniel Radcliffe is, the explanation makes no sense live demo: http://linkedu.eu/dedalo/demo
  6. 6. Motivation: Dedalo ✚ people look for Daniel Radcliffe at specific times ✚ because a new Harry Potter movie is out ✪ and because Daniel Radcliffe plays in Harry Potter Without knowing who Daniel Radcliffe is, the explanation makes no sense unless some context is given too live demo: http://linkedu.eu/dedalo/demo
  7. 7. Challenge Dedalo needs a formal definition of an explanation • what components ? • which interactions? to differentiate it from a mere correlation Challenge: how to figure out this definition
  8. 8. Approach Philosophy Neuroscience Linguistics Anthropology Psychology Artificial Intelligence How were “explanations” defined in Cognitive Science[1]? H. Gardner (1985). The mind’s new science: A history of the cognitive revolution.
  9. 9. Contributions/1 Philosophy Neuroscience Linguistics Sociology Psychology Computer Science Surveying “explanations” in Cognitive Science Structure : ✚ ✚ ✪  “When ✚ happens, then, due to a given set of circumstances ✪, ✚ will occur too because of a given law ”[2] E. Maaløe (2007). Modes of Explanation: From Rules to Emergence.
  10. 10. Contributions/2 Philosophy Neuroscience Linguistics Sociology Psychology Computer Science Representing the structure as an ontology design pattern It can be reused, extended and integrated
  11. 11. Explanation in Philosophy Philosophy – asking questions and checking answers Putting in a relation ✚ an event ✪ some initial conditions ✚ with an output phenomenon  according to a set of (empirical or metaphysical) laws Planets are near ✚; what is near does not twinkle  ; therefore, planets do not twinkle ✚ (context ✪: planets) [Aristotles]
  12. 12. Explanation in Psychology Psychology – understanding the human cognitive processes Producing ✪ behavioural changes ✚ to a termination condition ✚ from set of mechanically interactive entities  according to the human capacities According to psychological theories , Borderline Personality disorder ✚ can be explained by a childhood trauma ✚ (context ✪: a person’s behaviour)
  13. 13. Explanation in Neuroscience Neuroscience – understanding the human brain Describing a relationship between ✚ an input (cause) variable ✚ an output (effect) variable ✪ which stable under some interventions  without any law nor sufficient conditions Neuroimaging  has proven that humans can do math calculations ✚ because some neurons actively respond to quantities ✚ (context ✪: human capacities)
  14. 14. Explanation in Computer Science Computer science – performing human operations with machines Generating ✚ some new knowledge ✚ from some starting facts  and some prior knowledge ✪ under constraints of certain criteria Enrico, Ilaria and Mathieu submit their paper to KCAP  but only Mathieu is accepted and goes ✚, therefore, to go to KCAP ✚, one has to have both submitted and accepted a paper (context ✪: conference submissions)
  15. 15. Explanation in Sociology Sociology – linking human processes and the sociocultural world Deriving ✚ social regularities ✚ from some social behaviours  based on some human experience ✪ in a social world Living on your own  in Italy is hard: the job opportunities are low** ✚, so Italians live with their parents until later ages ✚ (context ✪: Italy’s social world) **also, nobody cooks like mom
  16. 16. Explanation in Linguistics Linguistics – explaining the nature of the human language Deriving ✚ grammar regularities ✚ from a set of facts ✪ which are linguistic-specific  based on some wellformedness constraints “*the my book” is not allowed in English ✚ because English does not allow double determiners  and “the” and “my” are both determiners ✚ (context ✪: English)
  17. 17. Survey Conclusion Disciplines change The structure and interactions remain the same ✚ ✚ ✪  This structure of an explanation can be represented as an ontology design pattern
  18. 18. part:Event The Explanation ODP ✚ ✚ When ✚ happens, then, due to a given set of circumstances ✪, ✚ will occur too because of a given law  dul:Theory sit:Situation ✪  Explanation posterior anterior setting condition basedOn dul:Agent conceptualisedBy subPropertyChain: anterior o setting, posterior o setting condition some sit:Situation anterior some part:Event and posterior some part:Event subclassOf subclassOf
  19. 19. Language Universal GrammarLinguistic Fact Language The Explanation ODP - Examples Representing models in Linguistics with E-ODP ✚ ✪  ✚ Explanation in Linguistics posterioranterior setting setting condition basedOn
  20. 20. Law PhenomenonPhenomenon Condition The Explanation ODP - Examples Representing models in Philosophy with E-ODP ✚ ✪  ✚ Explanation in Philosophy posterioranterior setting setting condition basedOn MetaphysicalLaw EmpiricalLaw subclassOf subclassOf
  21. 21. PriorKnowledge NewKnowledgeObservation Constraint The Explanation ODP - Examples Representing models in Computer Science with E-ODP ✚ ✪  ✚ Explanation in ComputerScience posterioranterior setting setting condition basedOn
  22. 22. Application on Dedalo Given a data pattern ✚ DedaloExpl Data Patternposterior when people search for Daniel Radcliffe posterior DedaloExpl ✚
  23. 23. Application on Dedalo Given a data pattern ✚ Find some candidate anterior events ✚ in Linked Data DedaloExpl Data Patternposterior when people search for Daniel Radcliffe posterioranterior Explanans anterior DedaloExpl Harry Potter movie** The World Cup** ✚✚
  24. 24. Application on Dedalo Given the two events ✚ and ✚ DedaloExpl Data Patternposterior when people search for Daniel Radcliffe posterioranterior Explanans anterior DedaloExpl Harry Potter movie** The World Cup** ✚✚
  25. 25. Application on Dedalo Given the two events ✚ and ✚ Find in Linked Data the context ✪ in which ✚ and ✚ occur DedaloExpl Data Patternposterior when people search for Daniel Radcliffe posterioranterior Explanans anterior DedaloExp Daniel Radciffe is the actor playing Harry Potter context context situation Context context context situation Harry Potter movie The World Cup ✪ ✚✚
  26. 26. Conclusions and Future Work Identifying what is an explanation Surveying how cognitive sciences have defined it Formally modeling it (with instances and examples) DedaloExpl Data Pattern Explanans Context Theory Next? • automatically finding the theory (not that easy) • refining the pattern • finding other applications • assessing the strength of two candidate contexts
  27. 27. Many thanks! Do you need (more) explanations? ilaria.tiddi@open.ac.uk live demo: http://linkedu.eu/dedalo/demo @IlaTiddi

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