A Brief History of Law Books &Law Libraries Impacting Western Civilization
The Earliest Legal Texts
Earliest Legal Text  2050 B.C.E. <ul><li>Ur-Nammu law code, proclaimed by a Sumerian king sometime after he became the rul...
Earliest Legal Texts (Continued)   <ul><li>Next known text is from King Lipit-Ishtar, dated about 1900 b.c. e. </li></ul><...
&quot;The orphan did not fall a prey to the wealthy; the widow did not fall a prey to the powerful; the man of one shekel ...
Hammurabi’s Code 1780 B.C.E.
Hammurabi’s Code <ul><li>A century and a half after King Lipit-Ishtar Hammurabi promulgated his celebrated Code </li></ul>...
Hammurabi’s Code <ul><li>“An eye for an eye” best conveys the underlying principle of Hammurabi’s Code </li></ul><ul><li>F...
The Ten Commandments 1300 B.C.E.
The Ten Commandments <ul><li>List of ten laws received by Moses directly from God 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Carved by the hand o...
The Ten Commandments <ul><li>I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of ...
The Ten Commandments <ul><li>Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven...
The Ten Commandments <ul><li>5. Honor thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Thou shal...
The Ten Commandments <ul><li>Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.  </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not cov...
Tabernacle at Shilo <ul><li>Priests at the Tabernacle at Shilo collected legal, historical and literary texts from which t...
Assurbanipal/ Ashurbanipal   669–633 B.C.E. <ul><li>Assurbanipal  or Ashurbanipal ,  king of ancient Assyria (669–633 B.C....
The Palantine Library 1 st  Century B.C.E. – 2 nd  Century C.E. <ul><li>Public Library </li></ul><ul><li>Established by Ca...
Justinian’s Code 529 C.E.
Justinian’s Code <ul><li>Codification of Roman Law  “Corpus Juris Civilis”  in Codex format </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by ...
Monastic Libraries 4 th  –14 th  Centuries C.E. <ul><li>Rule of St. Benedict required monks to read Christian literature <...
University of Bologna 1 st  Law School <ul><li>In medieval Italy, students of law would hire a teacher to teach them Roman...
Law Libraries in the Middle Ages <ul><li>At many universities in southern Europe law rather than theology was the dominant...
Law Libraries in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Once an authoritative text was obtained, measures were taken to protect it. At Mo...
Law Libraries in the Middle Ages <ul><li>At universities where law was studied the Justinian Code and  Gratian’s Decretum ...
Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England  1765 C.E.
Blackstone's Commentaries <ul><li>Blackstone set about writing down the entire English law in a 4-volume set, in easy-to-r...
Napoleonic Code 1804 C.E. <ul><li>Under the government of Napoleon, France adopted a comprehensive code of law in 1804 whi...
Napoleonic Code 1804 C.E. <ul><li>The Code became a model for civil law systems such as Quebec, California and Louisiana. ...
Napoleonic Code 1804 C.E. <ul><li>Many of its parts are traceable to Roman law. The French Code inspired similar civil cod...
The United States of America  <ul><li>Legal system primarily based upon English Common Law with Roman/Napoleonic influence...
The United States of America  <ul><li>Current trend is towards private sector publishers with many legislatures and courts...
The United States of America  <ul><li>American Association of Law Libraries provides a clearing house for information rela...
West Publishing Company founded 1872
West Group <ul><li>Dominant publisher of law books in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>The history of the West Group ca...
Electronic Media
Electronic Media <ul><li>With the advent of personal computers and the Internet the accessing legal information has change...
 
LEXIS ®-NEXIS® <ul><li>The Lexis ®  service, was the first commercial, full-text on-line legal information service, began ...
 
WestLaw <ul><li>Westlaw, a service of the West Group, is now the leading online legal research service, providing the broa...
PREMISE® Research Software 3.73 for Windows   <ul><li>PREMISE Research Software (PREMISE), is a package provided by West G...
The World Wide Web/Internet <ul><li>While the legal profession led  the way with innovations in CD-ROM and on-line legal r...
The World Wide Web/Internet <ul><li>Examples of Legal resource websites: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.law.ku.edu/research/...
The World Wide Web/Internet <ul><li>I keep a long list of favorite legal resource websites in my favorites folder and am c...
 
End Notes <ul><li>1  Kilgour, Frederick G.  The Evolution of the Book.  New York: Oxford University Pr., 1998 , 19. </li><...
End Notes (Continued) <ul><li>5  The Bible.  Revised Standard Edition, Deuteronomy 4:13 </li></ul><ul><li>6  The Bible.  R...
End Notes (Continued) <ul><li>9  Lerner, Fred,  The Story of  Libraries , New York: Continuum, 1998, 21. </li></ul><ul><li...
End Notes (Continued) <ul><li>14  Lerner, (1998), 84. </li></ul><ul><li>15  Lerner, (1998), 84. </li></ul><ul><li>16  Lern...
Bibliography <ul><li>The Bible.  Revised Standard Edition </li></ul><ul><li>The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.  200...
Bibliography (Continued) <ul><li>King, L. W.,   Hammurabi's Code of Laws,  http:// leb .net/~ farras /history/ hammurabi ....
Bibliography (Continued) <ul><li>Scott, S.P. A.M.,  Corpus Juris Civilis  (The Civil Law, the Code of Justinian), Cincinna...
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A Brief History Of Law Books & Law Libraries

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A Brief History Of Law Books & Law Libraries

  1. 1. A Brief History of Law Books &Law Libraries Impacting Western Civilization
  2. 2. The Earliest Legal Texts
  3. 3. Earliest Legal Text 2050 B.C.E. <ul><li>Ur-Nammu law code, proclaimed by a Sumerian king sometime after he became the ruler about 2050 b.c.e. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuneiform clay tablet containing an unknown number of laws, of which only five are sufficiently decipherable to be at least partially understood 1 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Earliest Legal Texts (Continued) <ul><li>Next known text is from King Lipit-Ishtar, dated about 1900 b.c. e. </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of laws is not known </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-seven laws have been deciphered in whole or in part </li></ul><ul><li>Principle of protecting the economically weak from being overpowered by the strong was clearly stated: 2 </li></ul>
  5. 5. &quot;The orphan did not fall a prey to the wealthy; the widow did not fall a prey to the powerful; the man of one shekel did not fall a prey to the man of one mina.” * (A mina was equal to sixty shekels.) * Kramer, Samuel Noah, History Begins at Sumer (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 1981), 54.
  6. 6. Hammurabi’s Code 1780 B.C.E.
  7. 7. Hammurabi’s Code <ul><li>A century and a half after King Lipit-Ishtar Hammurabi promulgated his celebrated Code </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi’s Code contained nearly three hundred provisions dealing with such topics as commercial, criminal, and civil law </li></ul><ul><li>Inscribed on an eight-foot-tall slab of stone, however, not on a clay tablet. 3 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hammurabi’s Code <ul><li>“An eye for an eye” best conveys the underlying principle of Hammurabi’s Code </li></ul><ul><li>For an English Translation of Hammurabi’s Code click this link: Code of Hammurabi </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Ten Commandments 1300 B.C.E.
  10. 10. The Ten Commandments <ul><li>List of ten laws received by Moses directly from God 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Carved by the hand of God on stone tablets 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Original tablets destroyed by Moses in a fit of rage </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement tablets housed in the Ark of the Covenant 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the Fundamental basis for Judeo-Christian legal systems in Western Civilization </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Ten Commandments <ul><li>I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Ten Commandments <ul><li>Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Ten Commandments <ul><li>5. Honor thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Thou shalt not kill (murder). </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not commit adultery. </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not steal. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Ten Commandments <ul><li>Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor. </li></ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor's. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tabernacle at Shilo <ul><li>Priests at the Tabernacle at Shilo collected legal, historical and literary texts from which they compiled the Deuteronomy narrative 8 </li></ul><ul><li>For pictures and more information on the Tabernacle at Shilo see, http://www.bibleplaces.com/tabernacle.htm </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assurbanipal/ Ashurbanipal 669–633 B.C.E. <ul><li>Assurbanipal or Ashurbanipal , king of ancient Assyria (669–633 B.C.E.) 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Library of ± 22,000 clay tablets included summaries of legal cases to demonstrate the maintenance of traditional law and order during the king’s rule 9 </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Palantine Library 1 st Century B.C.E. – 2 nd Century C.E. <ul><li>Public Library </li></ul><ul><li>Established by Caesar Augustus (31 b.c.e. to 14 c.e.) </li></ul><ul><li>Renowned for its law collection 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by fire 192 c.e. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Justinian’s Code 529 C.E.
  19. 19. Justinian’s Code <ul><li>Codification of Roman Law “Corpus Juris Civilis” in Codex format </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by logic based Greek legal principles </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired the concept of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of one of the two main legal systems in Western Civilization </li></ul>
  20. 20. Monastic Libraries 4 th –14 th Centuries C.E. <ul><li>Rule of St. Benedict required monks to read Christian literature </li></ul><ul><li>Abbots and deputies needed to consult legal works – textbooks on canon law, imperial edicts and the Leges Barbaroram, a codification of Germanic custom 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Due to value of books great precautions were taken to safeguard them such as careful inventories which evolved in library catalogs 12 </li></ul>
  21. 21. University of Bologna 1 st Law School <ul><li>In medieval Italy, students of law would hire a teacher to teach them Roman Law, especially Justinian's Code Corpus Juris. One teacher, known as Irnerius was particularly popular and students began to flock to him from all over Europe. He taught in Bologna and the surge of students meant that he had to hire other teachers to form the world's first law school. By 1150, his law school had over 10,000 students and contributed to the revival of the Corpus Juris and the spread of Roman law throughout Europe. 13 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Law Libraries in the Middle Ages <ul><li>At many universities in southern Europe law rather than theology was the dominant study. The aspiring lawyer, for whom the basic legal texts would be his lifelong professional tools, began acquiring them while a student. To facilitate this, Bologna's statutes provided that &quot;any doctor or scholar may be required to supply his own copy&quot; to serve as an exemplar, with refusal punishable by a severe fine.* </li></ul><ul><li>* Quoted in Thorndike, University Records and Life in the Middle Ages, 167. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Law Libraries in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Once an authoritative text was obtained, measures were taken to protect it. At Montpellier, the faculty of law decreed that &quot;a peda [section] shall never be given out except with a pledge of gold or silver worth double the price of the said pecia,&quot; though an exception was made for the poor. * The reliance upon stationers made libraries comparatively unimportant. Significant growth of university libraries did not occur until the 15th century in Spain, Italy, and southern France. 15 </li></ul><ul><li>* Quoted in Thorndike, University Records and Life in the Middle Ages, 249. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Law Libraries in the Middle Ages <ul><li>At universities where law was studied the Justinian Code and Gratian’s Decretum were must haves and usually were accompanied by extensive additional legal literature and commentaries. 16 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England 1765 C.E.
  26. 26. Blackstone's Commentaries <ul><li>Blackstone set about writing down the entire English law in a 4-volume set, in easy-to-read English, thus making the law suddenly accessible to the common man. His research also made the book a must-read for lawyers and law students alike. It was re-published many times. Through it, the English law was readily imported to the British colonies. Blackstone's Commentaries was more or less the law in the American colonies for the first century of American independence. 17 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Napoleonic Code 1804 C.E. <ul><li>Under the government of Napoleon, France adopted a comprehensive code of law in 1804 which enshrined many of the victories obtained during the Revolution such as individual liberty, equality before the law and the lay character of the state. The Code also incorporated most parts of Roman law. 17 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Napoleonic Code 1804 C.E. <ul><li>The Code became a model for civil law systems such as Quebec, California and Louisiana. Perhaps the most important aspect of the Code was the fact that the law was written (as opposed to judge-made) and in a non-technical style and thus more accessible to the public. The Code regulated much of private law matters such as property, wills, contracts, liability and obligations. 17 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Napoleonic Code 1804 C.E. <ul><li>Many of its parts are traceable to Roman law. The French Code inspired similar civil codes in the Canadian Province of Quebec (1865), Germany (1900) and Switzerland (1907) 17 </li></ul>
  30. 30. The United States of America <ul><li>Legal system primarily based upon English Common Law with Roman/Napoleonic influences in areas originally governed by France and Spain (particularly California & Louisiana) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Law Library at Harvard University </li></ul><ul><li>Most statutory and case law originally collected and published by federal or state government printers </li></ul>
  31. 31. The United States of America <ul><li>Current trend is towards private sector publishers with many legislatures and courts contracting with private publishing houses to print their cases and statutes </li></ul><ul><li>Today there are hundreds of law schools </li></ul><ul><li>Many more law libraries than law schools due to state and county law libraries maintained by local bars as well as libraries maintained by private firms which may vary in size from a few hundred volumes to tens of thousands of volumes </li></ul>
  32. 32. The United States of America <ul><li>American Association of Law Libraries provides a clearing house for information relating to the operation of law libraries, training and continuing education for law librarians and sets standards for law libraries. See, www.aall.org </li></ul>
  33. 33. West Publishing Company founded 1872
  34. 34. West Group <ul><li>Dominant publisher of law books in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>The history of the West Group can be found at http://www.westgroup.com/aboutus/history.asp </li></ul><ul><li>Main contribution to legal publishing is the key word indexing which allows a researcher to access all information relating to a particular topic in any of West’s thousands of publication via use of a single key word </li></ul>
  35. 35. Electronic Media
  36. 36. Electronic Media <ul><li>With the advent of personal computers and the Internet the accessing legal information has changed dramatically. The ease of searching for legal information has become increased dramatically through the use of CD-ROM and Internet browser technologies. </li></ul>
  37. 38. LEXIS ®-NEXIS® <ul><li>The Lexis ® service, was the first commercial, full-text on-line legal information service, began in 1973 to help legal practitioners research the law more efficiently. The companion Nexis ® news and business information service was launched in 1979 to richen research with recent and archival news and financial information. </li></ul>
  38. 40. WestLaw <ul><li>Westlaw, a service of the West Group, is now the leading online legal research service, providing the broadest collection of legal resources, news, business and public records information. Westlaw helps legal professionals conduct their research easier and faster. </li></ul>
  39. 41. PREMISE® Research Software 3.73 for Windows <ul><li>PREMISE Research Software (PREMISE), is a package provided by West Group which, gives you the ability to access and search material stored on CD-ROM discs and magnetic media. PREMISE was designed for use with West CD-ROM Libraries TM , but it can also be used to access Westlaw® , West Group’s premier online legal research service. </li></ul>
  40. 42. The World Wide Web/Internet <ul><li>While the legal profession led the way with innovations in CD-ROM and on-line legal research tools such as Premise, Lexis® and Westlaw® the profession lagged behind in developing WWW and Internet resources. Today though, the World Wide Web and Internet are beginning to give Lexis® and Westlaw® a run for their money. </li></ul>
  41. 43. The World Wide Web/Internet <ul><li>Examples of Legal resource websites: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.law.ku.edu/research/links.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.washlaw.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.law.cornell.edu/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.kslegislature.org/cgi-bin/statutes/index.cgi </li></ul>
  42. 44. The World Wide Web/Internet <ul><li>I keep a long list of favorite legal resource websites in my favorites folder and am continually adding to them. </li></ul>
  43. 46. End Notes <ul><li>1 Kilgour, Frederick G. The Evolution of the Book. New York: Oxford University Pr., 1998 , 19. </li></ul><ul><li>2 Kilgour (1998), 19. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Kilgour (1998), 19. </li></ul><ul><li>4 The Bible. Revised Standard Edition, Exodus 34:1-35 </li></ul>
  44. 47. End Notes (Continued) <ul><li>5 The Bible. Revised Standard Edition, Deuteronomy 4:13 </li></ul><ul><li>6 The Bible. Revised Standard Edition, Deuteronomy 10:5 </li></ul><ul><li>7 The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.  2001 downloaded October 13, 2002 from http://www.bartleby.com/65/as/Assurban.html </li></ul>
  45. 48. End Notes (Continued) <ul><li>9 Lerner, Fred, The Story of Libraries , New York: Continuum, 1998, 21. </li></ul><ul><li>10 Lerner (1998), 34. </li></ul><ul><li>11 Lerner, (1998), 47. </li></ul><ul><li>12 Lerner, (1998), 48. </li></ul><ul><li>13 http://www.duhaime.org/Law_museum/hist.htm#1100 </li></ul>
  46. 49. End Notes (Continued) <ul><li>14 Lerner, (1998), 84. </li></ul><ul><li>15 Lerner, (1998), 84. </li></ul><ul><li>16 Lerner, (1998), 91. </li></ul><ul><li>17 http://www.duhaime.org/Law_museum/ hist .htm#1100 </li></ul>
  47. 50. Bibliography <ul><li>The Bible. Revised Standard Edition </li></ul><ul><li>The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.  2001 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bibleplaces.com/tabernacle.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.duhaime.org/Law_museum/hist.htm#1100 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. westgroup .com/ aboutus /history.asp </li></ul><ul><li>Kilgour, Frederick G., The Evolution of the Book , New York: Oxford University Press, 1998 </li></ul>
  48. 51. Bibliography (Continued) <ul><li>King, L. W., Hammurabi's Code of Laws, http:// leb .net/~ farras /history/ hammurabi .htm as of October 13, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Kramer, Samuel Noah, History Begins at Sumer , Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Lerner, Fred, The Story of Libraries , New York: Continuum, 1998 </li></ul>
  49. 52. Bibliography (Continued) <ul><li>Scott, S.P. A.M., Corpus Juris Civilis (The Civil Law, the Code of Justinian), Cincinnati: Central Trust Company, 1932 </li></ul>

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