CHEM 101Chapter 4Part 1Week Ending 2/24/12
Reactions in Aqueous SolutionChapter 4Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or ...
A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or moresubstancesThe solute is(are) the substance(s) present in thesmaller amount(...
An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved inwater, results in a solution that can conduct electricity.A nonelectr...
Strong Electrolyte – 100% dissociationNaCl (s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)H2OWeak Electrolyte – not completely dissociatedCH3COOH CH...
Ionization of acetic acidCH3COOH CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq)A reversible reaction. The reaction canoccur in both directions.Aceti...
Hydration is the process in which an ion is surroundedby water molecules arranged in a specific manner.δ+δ−H2O
Electrolytes• Substances thatdissociate into ionswhen dissolved inwater.• A nonelectrolyte maydissolve in water, but itdoe...
Electrolytes and NonelectrolytesSoluble ioniccompounds tend tobe electrolytes.
Electrolytes and NonelectrolytesMolecular compoundstend to benonelectrolytes,except for acids andbases.
Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity?No cations (+) and anions (-) in solutionC6H12O6 (s) C6H12O6 (aq)H2O
Electrolytes• A strong electrolytedissociates completelywhen dissolved in water.• A weak electrolyte onlydissociates parti...
Strong Electrolytes Are…• Strong acids• Strong bases• Soluble ionic salts
AcidsThere are only sevenstrong acids:• Hydrochloric (HCl)• Hydrobromic (HBr)• Hydroiodic (HI)• Nitric (HNO3)• Sulfuric (H...
Properties of AcidsHave a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrusfruits contain citric acid.React with c...
BasesThe strong bases arethe soluble salts ofhydroxide ion:• Alkali metals• Calcium• Strontium• Barium
Have a bitter taste.Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases.Properties of BasesCause color changes in plant dyes.Aqueous b...
Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+(H3O+) in waterArrhenius base is a substance that produces OH-in water
A Brønsted acid is a proton donorA Brønsted base is a proton acceptoracidbase acid baseA Brønsted acid must contain at lea...
Monoprotic acidsHCl H++ Cl-HNO3 H++ NO3-CH3COOH H++ CH3COO-Strong electrolyte, strong acidStrong electrolyte, strong acidW...
Identify each of the following species as a Brønsted acid, base, orboth. (a) HI, (b) CH3COO-, (c) H2PO4-HI (aq) H+(aq) + I...
Solution StoichiometryThe concentration of a solution is the amount of solutepresent in a given quantity of solvent or sol...
Preparing a Solution of Known Concentration
Dilution is the procedure for preparing a less concentratedsolution from a more concentrated solution.DilutionAdd SolventM...
Other Concentration Terms• Dilute- a solution containing a small amount of solute• Concentrated- a solution containing mor...
How would you prepare 60.0 mL of 0.200 M HNO3from a stock solution of 4.00 M HNO3?MiVi = MfVfMi = 4.00 M Mf = 0.200 M Vf =...
Types of Chemical Reactions1. Precipitation2. Acid-Base3. Oxidation-Reduction-virtually all chemical reactions can be put ...
Precipitation ReactionsPrecipitate – insoluble solid that separates from solutionmolecular equationionic equationnet ionic...
Precipitation of Lead IodidePbI2Pb2++ 2I-PbI2 (s)
Writing Net Ionic Equations1. Write the balanced molecular equation.2. Write the ionic equation showing the strong electro...
Chem 101 week 6 pt1
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Chem 101 week 6 pt1

  1. 1. CHEM 101Chapter 4Part 1Week Ending 2/24/12
  2. 2. Reactions in Aqueous SolutionChapter 4Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  3. 3. A solution is a homogenous mixture of 2 or moresubstancesThe solute is(are) the substance(s) present in thesmaller amount(s)The solvent is the substance present in the largeramountSolution Solvent SoluteSoft drink (l)Air (g)Soft Solder (s)H2ON2PbSugar, CO2O2, Ar, CH4Snaqueous solutionsof KMnO4
  4. 4. An electrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved inwater, results in a solution that can conduct electricity.A nonelectrolyte is a substance that, when dissolved,results in a solution that does not conduct electricity.nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte
  5. 5. Strong Electrolyte – 100% dissociationNaCl (s) Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq)H2OWeak Electrolyte – not completely dissociatedCH3COOH CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq)Conduct electricity in solution?Cations (+) and Anions (-)
  6. 6. Ionization of acetic acidCH3COOH CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq)A reversible reaction. The reaction canoccur in both directions.Acetic acid is a weak electrolyte because itsionization in water is incomplete.
  7. 7. Hydration is the process in which an ion is surroundedby water molecules arranged in a specific manner.δ+δ−H2O
  8. 8. Electrolytes• Substances thatdissociate into ionswhen dissolved inwater.• A nonelectrolyte maydissolve in water, but itdoes not dissociate intoions when it does so.
  9. 9. Electrolytes and NonelectrolytesSoluble ioniccompounds tend tobe electrolytes.
  10. 10. Electrolytes and NonelectrolytesMolecular compoundstend to benonelectrolytes,except for acids andbases.
  11. 11. Nonelectrolyte does not conduct electricity?No cations (+) and anions (-) in solutionC6H12O6 (s) C6H12O6 (aq)H2O
  12. 12. Electrolytes• A strong electrolytedissociates completelywhen dissolved in water.• A weak electrolyte onlydissociates partiallywhen dissolved in water.
  13. 13. Strong Electrolytes Are…• Strong acids• Strong bases• Soluble ionic salts
  14. 14. AcidsThere are only sevenstrong acids:• Hydrochloric (HCl)• Hydrobromic (HBr)• Hydroiodic (HI)• Nitric (HNO3)• Sulfuric (H2SO4)• Chloric (HClO3)• Perchloric (HClO4)
  15. 15. Properties of AcidsHave a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrusfruits contain citric acid.React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas.React with carbonates and bicarbonatesto produce carbon dioxide gasCause color changes in plant dyes.2HCl (aq) + Mg (s) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g)2HCl (aq) + CaCO3 (s) CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g) + H2O (l)Aqueous acid solutions conduct electricity.
  16. 16. BasesThe strong bases arethe soluble salts ofhydroxide ion:• Alkali metals• Calcium• Strontium• Barium
  17. 17. Have a bitter taste.Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases.Properties of BasesCause color changes in plant dyes.Aqueous base solutions conduct electricity.Examples:
  18. 18. Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+(H3O+) in waterArrhenius base is a substance that produces OH-in water
  19. 19. A Brønsted acid is a proton donorA Brønsted base is a proton acceptoracidbase acid baseA Brønsted acid must contain at least one ionizableproton!
  20. 20. Monoprotic acidsHCl H++ Cl-HNO3 H++ NO3-CH3COOH H++ CH3COO-Strong electrolyte, strong acidStrong electrolyte, strong acidWeak electrolyte, weak acidDiprotic acidsH2SO4 H++ HSO4-HSO4-H++ SO42-Strong electrolyte, strong acidWeak electrolyte, weak acidTriprotic acidsH3PO4 H++ H2PO4-H2PO4-H++ HPO42-HPO42-H++ PO43-Weak electrolyte, weak acidWeak electrolyte, weak acidWeak electrolyte, weak acid
  21. 21. Identify each of the following species as a Brønsted acid, base, orboth. (a) HI, (b) CH3COO-, (c) H2PO4-HI (aq) H+(aq) + I-(aq) Brønsted acidCH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq) CH3COOH (aq) Brønsted baseH2PO4-(aq) H+(aq) + HPO42-(aq)H2PO4-(aq) + H+(aq) H3PO4 (aq)Brønsted acidBrønsted base
  22. 22. Solution StoichiometryThe concentration of a solution is the amount of solutepresent in a given quantity of solvent or solution.M = molarity =moles of soluteliters of solutionWhat mass of KI is required to make 500. mL of a2.80 M KI solution?volume of KI solution moles KI grams KIM KI M KI500. mL = 232 g KI166 g KI1 mol KIx2.80 mol KI1 L solnx1 L1000 mLx
  23. 23. Preparing a Solution of Known Concentration
  24. 24. Dilution is the procedure for preparing a less concentratedsolution from a more concentrated solution.DilutionAdd SolventMoles of solutebefore dilution (i)Moles of soluteafter dilution (f)=MiVi MfVf=
  25. 25. Other Concentration Terms• Dilute- a solution containing a small amount of solute• Concentrated- a solution containing more soluteSometimes relative concentrations of solutions areexpressed with the following terms:Saturated- solution of x which is in equilibrium withundissolved xUnsaturated- a solution which contains a lowerconcentration of solute than a saturated solutionSupersaturated- unstable situation in which the solutionactually contains more than the equilibriumconcentration of solute
  26. 26. How would you prepare 60.0 mL of 0.200 M HNO3from a stock solution of 4.00 M HNO3?MiVi = MfVfMi = 4.00 M Mf = 0.200 M Vf = 0.0600 L Vi = ? LVi =MfVfMi= 0.200 M x 0.0600 L4.00 M= 0.00300 L = 3.00 mLDilute 3.00 mL of acid with water to a total volumeof 60.0 mL.
  27. 27. Types of Chemical Reactions1. Precipitation2. Acid-Base3. Oxidation-Reduction-virtually all chemical reactions can be put intoone of these classes
  28. 28. Precipitation ReactionsPrecipitate – insoluble solid that separates from solutionmolecular equationionic equationnet ionic equationPb2++ 2NO3-+ 2Na++ 2I-PbI2 (s) + 2Na++ 2NO3-Na+and NO3-are spectator ionsPbI2Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2NaI (aq) PbI2 (s) + 2NaNO3 (aq)precipitatePb2++ 2I-PbI2 (s)
  29. 29. Precipitation of Lead IodidePbI2Pb2++ 2I-PbI2 (s)
  30. 30. Writing Net Ionic Equations1. Write the balanced molecular equation.2. Write the ionic equation showing the strong electrolytescompletely dissociated into cations and anions.3. Cancel the spectator ions on both sides of the ionic equation4. Check that charges and number of atoms are balanced in thenet ionic equationAgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) AgCl (s) + NaNO3 (aq)Ag++ NO3-+ Na++ Cl-AgCl (s) + Na++ NO3-Ag++ Cl-AgCl (s)Write the net ionic equation for the reaction of silver nitrate withsodium chloride.

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