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Sex reproduces the species, however culture and social institutions regulate with whom and when.
Review the “summing up” chart.
Sexuality & Deviance
Do you believe what is ―desirable‖
and/or beautiful sexually is determined
biologically or culturally?
American Society for Reproductive
―Sexuality is the experience and/or
expression of a person as a sexual being.‖
―Sexuality is about much more than
having sex. Sexuality is a theme found
almost everywhere—in sports, on
campus, in the workplace, and
especially in the mass media.‖ (188)
Sexuality shapes how we think about
ourselves and others.
We Were All Females!
Sexuality encompasses both sex and
What‘s the difference?
Refers to the biological distinction
between males and females.
Way the human species reproduces.
Female (XX)/Male (XY)
Child‘s sex is determined at conception.
Sex is NOT the same as gender.
Gender is an element of culture and
refers to personal traits and patterns of
behavior that culture attaches to being
male or female.
Sexuality has a biological foundation, yet it
is culturally shaped and acted out.
―Although there is a biological ‗sex drive‘ in
the sense that people find sex pleasurable
and may want to engage in sexual
activity, our biology does not dictate any
specific ways of being sexual any more
than our desire dictates any particular
foods or table manners.‖ (191).
Laumann 1994 Study:
1/3 of adults having sex with a partner a
few times a year of not at all.
1/3 adults having sex once or several times
1/3 have sex with a partner two or more
times a week.
No single stereotype accurately
describes sexual activity in the US based
on Laumann findings.
It is married who have sex the most and
they report the highest level of emotional
and physical satisfaction.
90% of Americans consider married people
having sex with someone other than their
spouse ―always wrong‖ or ―almost always
>25% of married men have 1 affair
>10% of married women have 1 affair
>75% of men remain faithful
>90% of women remain faithful
Most young men in US become sexually
active by age 16.
Most young women in US become
sexually active by age 17.
By mid-20‘s 90% of women and men are
sexually active at least once during the
By age 60, 85% of men are sexually active
within the last year.
By age 60, 60% of women are sexually
active within the last year.
By age 70, only half of women are active.
By age 80, only half of men are active.
Ancient Greek upper-class men
considered homosexuality the highest
form of relationship because women
For the Greeks, heterosexuality was only
for procreation, while ―real‖ men
preferred homosexual relations.
About 750,000 teen pregnancies in the
US each year.
For all racial and ethnic groups, weak
families ties and low income increase
sexual activity and likelihood of
The rate of pregnancy in 1950 was higher
than it is now (married younger).
>90% of pregnant teens were married.
>rates are lower, but 80% are unmarried.
>57% keep their babies
>29% have abortions
>14% have miscarriages
Center for Disease Control:
>In 2011, 329,797 babies born to
mothers 15-19 years old
>Record low, drop 8% since 2010
>Mothers 15-17 years drop 11%
>Mothers 18-19 years drop 7%
>African American and Latino
comprised 57% of U.S. teen births
―Sexually explicit material intended to
cause sexual arousal.
Most pornography in the US is created in
Vast majority of consumers are men.
How is Porn Addictive?
>In 2006, the porn industry grossed over 97 billion dollars worldwide.
>72% of visitors to pornographic websites are male. 28% are female.
>Consistent exposure to pornography can rewire the brain.
>Pornography is directly related to negative perception, attitudes &
aggression towards the opposite sex.
>The pornography industry grosses more revenue than the top
technology companies combined:
Apple, Google, Ebay, Netflix, Yahoo, Microsoft and Amazon.
>The average age of first internet exposure to pornography is 11 years
>One out of every six women grapples with addiction to pornography.
>25 percent of all search engine requests are pornography related (68
million daily pornographic search engine requests).
>70% of Internet porn traffic occurs between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., when
most people are at work.
>51% of US adults surveyed believe that pornography raises expectation
of how women should look and behave.
>Child pornography generates $3 billion annually.
The Science of Pornography Addiction
―Every second 30,000 people are viewing pornography.‖
Just 1 Click Away
Today in the US,
>1 in 6 adult men has paid for sex
>Against the law in entire US, except
―Men don‘t pay for sex; they pay so they
can leave.‖ (206)
Prostitution is considered
―the world‘s oldest profession.‖
A Look at Prostitution Statistics:
According to the FBI (2013):
>Human trafficking is the MOST common form of
modern-day slavery and it is big business.
>Domestic and international victims estimated in the
millions, mostly female and children.
>Fastest growing business of organized crime and 3rd
largest criminal enterprise in the world.
>Estimated 293,000 American youths at risk of becoming
commercial sexual exploitation.
>Average age girls become victims of prostitution is 12-
14 years old.
>Average age boys and transgender become victims
of prostitution 11-13 years old.
Please turn to pg. 205 and let‘s review
―Applying Theory: Sexuality‖?
>how does functionalism view sexuality?
>how does symbolic interactionism?
>how does conflict theory?
A crime with no obvious victim.
Do you consider prostitution a victimless
Thailand has 2 million prostitutes, 10% of
women and half are teens.
Prostitution would not exist were it not in
demand by men.
Rape is an expression of power—a
violent act that uses sex to
hurt, humiliate, or control another
US Dept of Justice (2008), more than
90,000 women each year report.
Men are raped in about 10% of cases.
1/3 are raped by a stranger.
2/3 are raped by someone they know.
2/3 of rape victims are under 18 yrs.
1/3 of rape victims are under 12 yrs.
1/3 of rape victims under 18 yrs are
attacked by their father or stepfather.
Epidemic of Sexual Violence in America:
GET THE FACTS
―Our culture often describes sexuality in
terms of sport and violence:
>men ‗scoring‘ with women
>slamming, banging, and hitting on
―We are all familiar with the experience
of being ‗different.‘ Deviance—standing
out by not conforming to what is normal
or expected—results not just from
individual choices and norms of society‖
Recognized violation of cultural norms.
One category of deviance = crime.
Types of criminal deviance:
>minor traffic violation
Deviant actions and attitudes, whether
negative or positive have an element of
―difference‖ which makes ―them‖ and
› Speaking too much in class
› Overly enthusiastic about new technology
―Not all deviance involves action or
even choice. The very existence of
some categories of people can be
troublesome to others‖ (216).
―How a society defines deviance, who is
branded as deviant, and what people
decide to do about deviance all have
to do with the way society is organized‖
How does society tend to deal with deviance?
1. Social Control
>attempts by society to regulate
people‘s thoughts and actions.
1. Criminal Justice System
>the organizations–police, courts and
prison officials—that respond to alleged
violations of the law.
University of Wisconsin study:
Found after a 25 year study of 400 boys that crime is
linked to a genetic ―gene‖ and a combination of
However, genetic theories of criminal behavior is highly
―Although we tend to view deviance as the free choice
or personal failings of individuals, all behavior—
deviance as well as conformity—is shaped by society‖
[Review forms of deviance pg. 218]
Let‘s go to our text and review together
the primary features of applying
functionalism, conflict theory and
symbolic interactionism to deviance.
Believed society could be organized to
encourage too much deviance.
Types of deviance:
>innovation: using street crime instead of a
job in order to obtain cultural goals.
>ritualism: rigidly sticking to the rules in
order to at least be ‗respectable.‘
>retreatism: rejecting cultural goals and
conventional means, ―drop out.‖
>rebellion: same as retreatism, but they also
create a countercultural subgroup.
Characteristics of delinquent subcultures:
>trouble with teachers and police
>toughness through physical strength
>smartness in the ability to con
>excitement in search of thrill and danger
>fate and belief in lack of control over life
>freedom often expressed an anger to
―People have a tendency to treat behavior that
irritates or threatens them not simply as different but
as deviance or even mental illness‖ (223).
Typically we assess whether some one is ‗bad‘ or
‗good‘, ‗sick‘ or ‗well.‘
People we tend to define as deviant are typically not
as bad or harmful as they are powerless.
All norms, especially the laws of any
society, generally reflect the interests of the rich and
powerful. People who threaten the wealthy are likely
Social control depends on people
anticipating the consequences of their
Conformity links to (4) types of social control:
Let‘s review data by demographic as it
relates to deviance and crime (232-239).
What did you learn new? What was
affirmed? Any surprises?