Sexuality & Deviance


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Introduction to Sociology Lecture on Sexuality and Social Deviance by Tiffany Buchanan.

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  • Sex reproduces the species, however culture and social institutions regulate with whom and when.
  • Review the “summing up” chart.
  • Sexuality & Deviance

    1. 1.  Do you believe what is ―desirable‖ and/or beautiful sexually is determined biologically or culturally?
    2. 2. According to: American Society for Reproductive Medicine ―Sexuality is the experience and/or expression of a person as a sexual being.‖
    3. 3.  ―Sexuality is about much more than having sex. Sexuality is a theme found almost everywhere—in sports, on campus, in the workplace, and especially in the mass media.‖ (188)  Sexuality shapes how we think about ourselves and others.
    4. 4. We Were All Females!  Sexuality encompasses both sex and gender. What‘s the difference?
    5. 5.  Refers to the biological distinction between males and females.  Way the human species reproduces.  Female (XX)/Male (XY)  Child‘s sex is determined at conception.
    6. 6.  Sex is NOT the same as gender.  Gender is an element of culture and refers to personal traits and patterns of behavior that culture attaches to being male or female. >responsibilities >opportunities >privileges
    7. 7.  Sexuality has a biological foundation, yet it is culturally shaped and acted out.  ―Although there is a biological ‗sex drive‘ in the sense that people find sex pleasurable and may want to engage in sexual activity, our biology does not dictate any specific ways of being sexual any more than our desire dictates any particular foods or table manners.‖ (191).
    8. 8. Laumann 1994 Study:  1/3 of adults having sex with a partner a few times a year of not at all.  1/3 adults having sex once or several times a month.  1/3 have sex with a partner two or more times a week.
    9. 9.  No single stereotype accurately describes sexual activity in the US based on Laumann findings.  It is married who have sex the most and they report the highest level of emotional and physical satisfaction.
    10. 10.  90% of Americans consider married people having sex with someone other than their spouse ―always wrong‖ or ―almost always wrong.‖  HOWEVER; >25% of married men have 1 affair >10% of married women have 1 affair >75% of men remain faithful >90% of women remain faithful
    11. 11.  Most young men in US become sexually active by age 16.  Most young women in US become sexually active by age 17.  By mid-20‘s 90% of women and men are sexually active at least once during the past year.
    12. 12.  By age 60, 85% of men are sexually active within the last year.  By age 60, 60% of women are sexually active within the last year.  By age 70, only half of women are active.  By age 80, only half of men are active.
    13. 13.  Ancient Greek upper-class men considered homosexuality the highest form of relationship because women were inferior.  For the Greeks, heterosexuality was only for procreation, while ―real‖ men preferred homosexual relations.
    14. 14.  Teen pregnancy  Pornography  Prostitution  Sexual Violence
    15. 15.  About 750,000 teen pregnancies in the US each year.  For all racial and ethnic groups, weak families ties and low income increase sexual activity and likelihood of pregnancy.  The rate of pregnancy in 1950 was higher than it is now (married younger).
    16. 16.  In 1950, >90% of pregnant teens were married. In 2012, >rates are lower, but 80% are unmarried. >57% keep their babies >29% have abortions >14% have miscarriages
    17. 17.  Center for Disease Control: >In 2011, 329,797 babies born to mothers 15-19 years old >Record low, drop 8% since 2010 >Mothers 15-17 years drop 11% >Mothers 18-19 years drop 7% >African American and Latino comprised 57% of U.S. teen births
    18. 18.  ―Sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal.  Most pornography in the US is created in California.  Vast majority of consumers are men.
    19. 19. How is Porn Addictive? FACTS: >In 2006, the porn industry grossed over 97 billion dollars worldwide. >72% of visitors to pornographic websites are male. 28% are female. >Consistent exposure to pornography can rewire the brain. >Pornography is directly related to negative perception, attitudes & aggression towards the opposite sex. >The pornography industry grosses more revenue than the top technology companies combined: Apple, Google, Ebay, Netflix, Yahoo, Microsoft and Amazon. >The average age of first internet exposure to pornography is 11 years old. >One out of every six women grapples with addiction to pornography. >25 percent of all search engine requests are pornography related (68 million daily pornographic search engine requests). >70% of Internet porn traffic occurs between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., when most people are at work. >51% of US adults surveyed believe that pornography raises expectation of how women should look and behave. >Child pornography generates $3 billion annually.
    20. 20. The Science of Pornography Addiction ―Every second 30,000 people are viewing pornography.‖ Just 1 Click Away
    21. 21.  Today in the US, >1 in 6 adult men has paid for sex sometime. >Against the law in entire US, except Nevada. ―Men don‘t pay for sex; they pay so they can leave.‖ (206)
    22. 22. Prostitution is considered ―the world‘s oldest profession.‖ A Look at Prostitution Statistics: INFOGRAPHIC
    23. 23.  According to the FBI (2013): >Human trafficking is the MOST common form of modern-day slavery and it is big business. >Domestic and international victims estimated in the millions, mostly female and children. >Fastest growing business of organized crime and 3rd largest criminal enterprise in the world. >Estimated 293,000 American youths at risk of becoming commercial sexual exploitation. >Average age girls become victims of prostitution is 12- 14 years old. >Average age boys and transgender become victims of prostitution 11-13 years old.
    24. 24.  How?  What Ways?  For Who?
    25. 25.  Please turn to pg. 205 and let‘s review ―Applying Theory: Sexuality‖? >how does functionalism view sexuality? >how does symbolic interactionism? >how does conflict theory?
    26. 26.  A crime with no obvious victim. Do you consider prostitution a victimless crime?  Thailand has 2 million prostitutes, 10% of women and half are teens.  Prostitution would not exist were it not in demand by men.
    27. 27.  Rape is an expression of power—a violent act that uses sex to hurt, humiliate, or control another person.  US Dept of Justice (2008), more than 90,000 women each year report.  Men are raped in about 10% of cases.
    28. 28.  1/3 are raped by a stranger.  2/3 are raped by someone they know.  2/3 of rape victims are under 18 yrs.  1/3 of rape victims are under 12 yrs.  1/3 of rape victims under 18 yrs are attacked by their father or stepfather.
    29. 29. Epidemic of Sexual Violence in America: GET THE FACTS
    30. 30. ―Our culture often describes sexuality in terms of sport and violence: >men ‗scoring‘ with women >slamming, banging, and hitting on
    31. 31.  ―We are all familiar with the experience of being ‗different.‘ Deviance—standing out by not conforming to what is normal or expected—results not just from individual choices and norms of society‖ (215).  Recognized violation of cultural norms.
    32. 32.  One category of deviance = crime.  Types of criminal deviance: >minor traffic violation >prostitution >sexual assault >murder
    33. 33.  Deviant actions and attitudes, whether negative or positive have an element of ―difference‖ which makes ―them‖ and outsider.  Positive deviance: › Speaking too much in class › Overly enthusiastic about new technology
    34. 34.  ―Not all deviance involves action or even choice. The very existence of some categories of people can be troublesome to others‖ (216).  ―How a society defines deviance, who is branded as deviant, and what people decide to do about deviance all have to do with the way society is organized‖ (216).
    35. 35. How does society tend to deal with deviance? 1. Social Control >attempts by society to regulate people‘s thoughts and actions. 1. Criminal Justice System >the organizations–police, courts and prison officials—that respond to alleged violations of the law.
    36. 36.  University of Wisconsin study: Found after a 25 year study of 400 boys that crime is linked to a genetic ―gene‖ and a combination of environmental factors. However, genetic theories of criminal behavior is highly controversial. ―Although we tend to view deviance as the free choice or personal failings of individuals, all behavior— deviance as well as conformity—is shaped by society‖ (218).
    37. 37. [Review forms of deviance pg. 218]  Let‘s go to our text and review together the primary features of applying functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interactionism to deviance.
    38. 38.  Believed society could be organized to encourage too much deviance.  Types of deviance: >innovation: using street crime instead of a job in order to obtain cultural goals. >ritualism: rigidly sticking to the rules in order to at least be ‗respectable.‘ >retreatism: rejecting cultural goals and conventional means, ―drop out.‖ >rebellion: same as retreatism, but they also create a countercultural subgroup.
    39. 39.  Characteristics of delinquent subcultures: >trouble with teachers and police >toughness through physical strength >smartness in the ability to con >excitement in search of thrill and danger >fate and belief in lack of control over life >freedom often expressed an anger to authorities
    40. 40.  ―People have a tendency to treat behavior that irritates or threatens them not simply as different but as deviance or even mental illness‖ (223).  Typically we assess whether some one is ‗bad‘ or ‗good‘, ‗sick‘ or ‗well.‘  People we tend to define as deviant are typically not as bad or harmful as they are powerless.  All norms, especially the laws of any society, generally reflect the interests of the rich and powerful. People who threaten the wealthy are likely labeled deviant.
    41. 41.  Social control depends on people anticipating the consequences of their behavior.  Conformity links to (4) types of social control: >attachment >opportunity >involvement >belief
    42. 42.  Let‘s review data by demographic as it relates to deviance and crime (232-239).  What did you learn new? What was affirmed? Any surprises?
    43. 43.  Retribution  Deterrence  Rehabilitation  Societal protection
    44. 44. Stanley Milgram: Obedience What Would You Do? Are You Sure?
    45. 45. Taboo Sexuality