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L8. b. cognition chp 7


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Psych 2000

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L8. b. cognition chp 7

  1. 1. COGNITIONLecture 8. Part B. Chapter 7.
  2. 2. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill three criteria:1. Standardization2. Reliability3. Validity
  3. 3. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION STANDARDIZATIONStandardizing a test involves administering the test toa representative sample of future test takers in orderto establish a basis for meaningful comparison.
  4. 4. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION STANDARDIZATION Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of scores on a tested population — a bell-shaped pattern called the normal curve.
  5. 5. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION RELIABILITYA test is reliable when it yields consistent results. Toestablish reliability researchers establish differentprocedures:1. Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are.2. Reliability using different tests: Using different forms of the test to measure consistency between them.3. Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency.
  6. 6. INTELLIGENCE PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION VALIDITYThe degree to which a test actually measures whatit’s supposed to measure or predict.1. Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a particular behavior or trait.2. Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in predicting a particular behavior or trait.
  7. 7. RELIABLE AND VALID LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed Construct (i.e., “intelligence) TEST Scores on testTest MUST be RELIABLE to be VALID! Menu
  8. 8. RELIABLE BUT INVALID LO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed Construct (i.e., “intelligence”) TEST Scores on testTest can be RELIABLE but still be INVALID! Menu
  9. 9. UNRELIABLE AND INVALIDLO 7.5 Measuring Intelligence and How Intelligence Tests Are Constructed Construct (i.e., “intelligence”)TEST Scores on test Menu
  10. 10. Marys bathroom scale always overstates peoples actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ________ reliability and ________ validity.A. low; high 25% 25% 25% 25%B. high; lowC. low; lowD. high; high 1 2 3 4
  11. 11. LANGUAGE Language = An open and symbolic communication system that has rules of grammar and allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas Open = free to change Symbolic = no connection between a sound and the meaning or idea with associated with it.
  12. 12. LANGUAGE INTERESTING FACTS Protolanguage – very rudimentary language, also known as pre-language, used by earlier species of homo. Evolution of language and the brain are intertwined  Particularly the frontal lobe  Evolved to grammatical language
  13. 13. LANGUAGE INTERESTING FACTS English is language with most words – app. 250,000 Countries where English (or other Germanic languages) is spoken account for more than 40 percent of the world GDP, while comprising only about 8 percent of the worlds population Every human being is born with the capacity to make every sound of every language in the world perfectly. With time, we filter out the sounds we don’t need for our primary language and focus on the ones we do. html
  14. 14. LANGUAGE STRUCTURESpoken language is built of basic speechsounds, called phonemes; elementary units ofmeaning, called morphemes; and words.Finally, language must have a grammar, a system ofrules that enables us to communicate with others.Semantics refers to the rules we use to derivemeaning from the morphemes, and syntax refers tothe rules we use to order words into sentences.
  15. 15. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREPhonemes: The smallest distinctive sound unit in aspoken language. For example: bat, has three phonemes b · a · t chat, has three phonemes ch · a · t English has about 40 different phonemes
  16. 16. LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word. For example: Previewed = pre . view. ed Uneventful = un. event. ful
  17. 17. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREGrammar - A system of rules in a language thatenables us to communicate with and understandothers. Grammar Semantics Syntax
  18. 18. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREGrammar> Semantics Set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. For example: Semantic rule tells us that adding –ed to the word laugh means that it happened in the past.
  19. 19. LANGUAGE STRUCTUREGrammar> Syntax The rules for ordering words into grammatically sensible sentences. For example:In English syntactical rule is that adjectives comebefore nouns; white house. In Spanish it is reversed;casa blanca.“Blue happy processes swim angrily down stream”
  20. 20. The smallest distinctive sound unit is a ___________ and the smallest unit that carries meaning is a ____________.1. Phoneme, morpheme 25% 25% 25% 25%2. Syntax, grammar3. Morpheme, phoneme4. Semantics, morpheme 1 2 3 4
  21. 21. LANGUAGE STRUCTURE Jamaican patois me glad for to see you” (pro: I am glad to see you)…” West African languages form their sentences and forms of verbs differently in the basic morphological structure
  22. 22. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHTLinguistic relativity hypothesisthe theory that thought processes and concepts arecontrolled by language
  23. 23. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHTCognitive universalismtheory that concepts are universal and influence thedevelopment of language
  24. 24. WHAT DAY DO YOU WANT OFF?1. Tuesday 16th Oct 33% 33% 33%2. Thursday 18th Oct3. Thursday 1st Sept 1 2 3