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  1. 1. Voluntary Reflex2018161412 T Contraction (s)10 T Stimulus (s)8 Change (s)6420 Kick 1 Kick 2 Kick 3 Kick 4 Kick 5 Involuntary Reflex 16 14 12 10 T Contraction (s) 8 T Stimulus (s) 6 Change (s) 4 2 0 Kick 1 Kick 2 Kick 3 Kick 4 Kick 5
  2. 2. Reflex Without Reinforcement2.5 21.5 Max (mV) Min (mV) 1 Change mV0.5 0 Response 1 Response 2 Response 3 Response 4 Response 5 Reflex With Reinforcement 32.5 2 Max (mV)1.5 Min (mV) Change mV 10.5 0 Response 1 Response 2 Response 3 Response 4 Response 5
  3. 3. Neuron State Fair Emergency Procedures Experiment This experiment was conducted in order to decide the best possible method of preparing for an emergency while planning the state fair. The above tables will be referred to as evidence for each situation.Decision 1: Should a person be used to activate the EMS team (voluntary), or should it bedone automatically by a machine (involuntary)? Verdict: A machine would be preferred because a machine can detect anemergency much quicker and cause a faster reaction than a person can. The differencesin the Change of time in the first versus second table is accounted for by the human delayof alerting emergency services, as evident in the study.Decision 2: What would be the minimum data transfer speed needed to quickly conveyemergency messages across the fair? Verdict: .72 meters per second. The data must travel .72 m/s to reach EMS ontime *** Please note: This varies from the predicted value of 100 m/s because labconditions were not as perfect as researchers could have made them. Budget was toolow.A nerve impulse travels very quickly, but an actual electrical system would be muchmore beneficial and fast, as a nerve impulse can travel up to 100 m/s and electricitycan travel along a wire at 3.00 e8 m/s.Lab analysis: The larger the fair, the slower the reaction will be, as compared to theother data.
  4. 4. The nervous system has the functions and roles are very important for living things. Nervous systemcollect and process information, react to various stimuli and also arranged a variety of cells. Relationto the disciplines of psychology of the nervous system is also a driver of behavior. For examplestimulus received a bad news and then he became upset and sad feelings are manifested in crying,it is a small example of how the nervous system plays a very important role in human behavior. Thenervous system was essentially divided into two namely:1) The central nervous system and2) Peripheral nervous system.Central nervous system has the function of receiving, processing and interpreting or interpretingand storing sensory information coming from sensory nerves like the taste, sound, smell, color andpressure on the skin, internal organs and glands others. Central nervous system also functionsto send messages to muscles, glands and internal organs. Central nervous system has twocomponents, namely the brain and spinal marrow (spinal cord)
  5. 5. 1) Brain The brain regulates all human activities. The brain is located in the skull cavity and coveredby three layers of meninges membrane that is strong. Outermost membrane called the dura mater,the innermost and the middle is piamater called arachnoid. Among the three membranes that arefluid called cerebrospinal function is to reduce the impact or shock. The human brain is divided intothree parts, namely a large brain (cerebrum), cerebellum (cerebellum) and advanced marrow.a) big brain (cerebrum) Cerebrum has a surface that folds and is divided into two parts. The lefthemisphere to serve the body right and the right hemisphere to serve the body left. The cerebrumconsists of two layers. Gray outer layer called the cortex, containing the bodies of nerve cells. Theinner layer contains white nerve fibers (neurit / axons). Big brain serves as a center of consciousactivities such as thinking, remembering, talking, seeing, hearing, and moving.b) Little Brain (Cerebellum) The cerebellum is located under the rear of the cerebrum. Small brainstructures such as large brain. Consisting of the right and left hemispheres. Right and lefthemispheres of the cerebellum are connected by bridges Varol. Divided into two layers as outerlayers of the cerebrum that is gray and white inner layer. The cerebellum serves to regulate thebodys balance and coordinate the muscles work when we move. c) advanced Marrow Advancedmarrow (medulla oblongata) is divided into two layers, namely layers in the gray because it containsa lot of weight nerve cells and the outer layer is white because it contains neurit (axons). Advancedmarrow serves as the central control of breathing, blood vessels constrict, regulate heartbeat,regulate body temperature and other activities that are not realized.2). Spinal cord (spinal cord)Is an extension of the brain. Bemula spinal cord from the base of the brain, then ran along themiddle of the back and protected by the backbone. Spinal nerves have a role as a bridge thatconnects the brain to other parts of the body that lies below the neck. Spinal cord is capable ofproducing reflex movements automatically without any help from the brain and without involvingconscious effort. For example, when a person touches the iron unwitting intentionally he will pull hishand from the iron. Before the brain processes the events that have occurred. Nerve impulsescarrying messages to the spinal cord and spinal send commands in the form of impulses to themuscles pull the hand away from the iron hand.B. Peripheral nervous system Peripheral nervous system or peripheral nervous system plays withmessages and information coming out of the central nervous system. Peripheral nervous system isdivided into two namely: 1) somatic nervous system and 2) the autonomic nervous system. Somaticnervous system (skeletal nervous system) consists of the nerves associated with sensory receptors
  6. 6. that make a person able to feel the world. Skeletal muscles also allows one to perform deliberateactions such as turning on the lights, feel the insect was walking on his body, somatic system isactive. Autonomic nervous system function as a regulator of blood vessels, glands and internalorgans such as bladder, stomach and heart. When someone is angry then his ears flushed oremotion until the heartbeat is increased, then thats where the autonomic nervous system is on.Autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts, namely the sympathetic nervous system andthe parasympathetic nervous system, where each of the nervous system is working in the oppositeorder to the body can adapt to the environment. For example, the sympathetic nervous systemmakes a persons face became red, issued a drought and the energy issue, improve heart rate andblood pressure, sympathetic nervous system works when a person is in a situation that demands fora fight, escape and overcome the condition. The workings of the parasympathetic nervous systemdoes not actually stop the process in the body but tend decrease and keep everything runningsmoothly. For example, the parasympathetic nervous system causes the body to conserve and saveenergy, and when someone is fleeing from the pursuit of making the nervous system increases heartrate is slow again aan heart rate and keep the heart rhythm in order to stay regular.
  7. 7. Cell Jobs/ link nerve picture • Nancy’s Non-Neural Family- The neuroglia family is the glue to the neurons and is also a great support and protection force. Amanda Astocyte- She covers the surface of the neuron and blood vessel slide. Shehelps provide structural support and helps form the blood/brain barrier. Also she regulateswhat substances from the blood reach the neurons Carl Ciliated ependymal- He lines the ventricles of the brain bowling alley to help movethe cerebrospinal fluid that keeps everything running smoothly. Erika Ependymal- Carl’s partner, On the surface of the choroid plexus secretes thecerebrospinal fluid. Marcus Microglia- He phagocytizes dead nervous tissue, microorganisms and otherforeign matter. This helps keep the fair clean for all its customers. Olga Oligodencrocyte- She is the extension from the Myelin sheath around each axonwithin the peripheral nervous system. She helps all parts of the park under control. Sam Schwann- He forms the myelin sheath around each axon within the peripheralnervous system. This provides protection for the riders, so they are safe from harm. Sydney Satellite- Neuron cell bodies with ganglia are surrounded by her. She alsoprovides protection to the rides and the riders. • Niall’s Neural Family- This family receives stimuli and conducts action potentials. Unipolar Ugo- He is a single fiber that extends from the cell and divides into two branches,one connected to the peripheral body part and works as a dendrite, the other entering thebrain or spinal cord and functions as an axon. Bipolar Beatrice- She has only two nerve fibers one, an axon and the multipolar neuron. subjects/anatomy/brain/gifs/Neuron.GIF&ir= subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml&ig= images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ9cJB6r1VMg0sgxTi6VSr1Xa9AnBHEAcloq9rc- ARNMKaJ4dIuib3Ufvic&h=308&w=535&q=nerve+picture+enchanted+learning&babsrc= adbartrp
  8. 8. EMERGENCIES: Nerve Impulses In case of any emergencies, make sure to read about Nerve Impulses before going to our fair! You may be surprised of the things we (ourselves) do but don’t even realize! How do Nerve Impulses Start?We and other animals have several types of receptors of mechanical stimuli. Each initiatesnerve impulses in sensory neurons when it is physically deformed by an outside force such as: touch pressure stretching sound waves motion (6)Mechanoreceptors enable us to detect touch monitor the position of our muscles, bones, and joints - the sense of proprioception detect sounds and the motion of the body. (6)Nerve impulses are when neurons are remarkable among cells because they initiate andconduct signals. One way to describe a nerve impulse is as a wave of electrical fluctuation thattravels along the plasma membrane. (1)
  9. 9. Please note to check the blog postafter this one to find the missing partof the artifact. It could not be printedas a PDF