The New Deal
and World War II
Georgia History Chapter 18
The president of the United States when
the Great Depression began was Herbert
– Even though President Hoover set up
government programs to stimulate the
economy, he was still blamed for the
These programs lent money to keep banks and
businesses operating and bout surplus farm
The New Deal
Franklin D. Roosevelt won the presidency
by promising a “New Deal”
– Series of economic recovery programs created
in an effort to end the depression and prevent
Roosevelt received treatment for his polio
in Warm Springs, Georgia.
– The time he spend in Georgia influenced the
programs he created as part of the New Deal
to help the nation recover from the
Governor Talmadge – Opposed minimum wage
requirements of the New Deal because:
It threatened white supremacy
All jobs do not require equal labor
It would hurt private enterprise by paying too high
– The New Deal was supported in Georgia by
Governor E.D. Rivers.
Georgia’s “little New Deal”
Governor Rivers fully supported the New
Deal and instituted reforms of his own
called Georgia’s “little New Deal.”
– Programs involved education, highway
safety, and hospitals.
Civilian Conservation Corps – set up to put
young men to work in rural and forest
areas, planting trees and terracing fields
to prevent soil erosion.
Public Works Administration – Put men to
work on public construction projects, such
schools, auditoriums, hospitals, dams, rod
s, bridges and ships.
The Works Progress Administration
biggest and most controversial work relief
program. It put construction
workers, artists, musicians and writers to
work. They did things like clear
slums, build power plants, and providing
free plays and concerts for communities.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration –
Set up to increase farm income up to WWI
levels by paying farmers to produce LESS.
Farm Security Administration – Relieve
rural poverty / gave loans and assisted
farmers in trying new crops and taught
them farm management
National Recovery Administration – helped
business and industry & their employees
by specifying how much would be
produced, the prices to be charged and
wages to be paid.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation –
Restored confidence in banks by insuring
Rural Electrification Administration –
provided electricity at affordable prices to
rural areas of the country
Securities & Exchange Commission –
Oversaw the buying and selling of stocks.
National Labor Relations Board – To
protect workers who wanted to create
Tennessee Valley Authority – Build dams
and operated power plants to provide low
cost electricity to people in seven states.
Social Security Act – set up to provide
government retirement pay (pensions) to
older citizens and money to help people
who were unemployed or unable to work.
Rivers as governor
In order to pay for the programs in his
“little New Deal,” he set up authorities for
Under Arnall’s term as Governor
The Constitution of 1877 was rewritten
because it contained over 300 changes.
This made it very confusing.
– This new Constitution limited the powers of
– During his term, the poll tax was dropped, 18
year olds could vote, the white primary was
abolished and he ended the use of chain
Georgia is the first state to lower the voting age to
Talmadge as Governor
Won election by suggesting that New Deal
programs would end segregation.
In 1941, the University of Georgia lost its
accreditation with SACCS because
Governor Talmadge fired two
administrators who supported integration.
During the Great Depression, many
nations turned to dictators to solve their
WWII began when Britain and France
declared war on Germany….Germany had
The United States entered WWII when the
Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.
Hitler launched a massive three-month
“lightening war” on its European
Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg,
Holland and France fell to the Germans.
Germany then launched an air attack on
Great Britain. In nightly raids, German
bombers dropped thousands of explosives
on London, but the city did not surrender.
This is known as the Battle Of Britain.
The “Home of the US Infantry,” with the
largest infantry school in the world, was at
Fort Benning, Georgia. (Near Columbus)
Lend-Lease Act – Before entering the
war, the US allowed Britain to borrow or
lease supplies, equipment and food in its
fight against Germany.
The Belle Aircraft Corporation, as well as
the shipyards in coastal Georgia not only
produced aircraft and ships for
wartime, but also employed women to do
jobs traditionally considered to be “men’s
By the end of WWII, more Georgians were
employed in manufacturing than
Holocaust – The WWII policy of Hitler and
Nazi Germany to kill millions of innocent
– Not only were the Jews targeted, but also the
physically and mentally handicapped, the
elderly, and those to young or weak to work.
In the beginning, the “camps” were set up to
house political prisoners.
May 7th, 1945, Germany surrendered to
the Allies but Japan continued to fight.
– President Truman gave the order to use a
new secret weapon, the atomic bomb.
August 6, 1945 - a B-29 bomber dropped the first
bomb on Hiroshima, instantly killing 70,000 80,000
civilians. Three days later another was dropped on
Nagasaki killing about half that number.
August 15, 1945 – Japan surrenders
Authority – special purpose public
corporation set up by the government.
They perform a specific function and may
be given special powers that a regular
government agency cannot have (such as
Dictator – Ruler with absolute authority
Integration – Bringing together people of
different races and allowing them equal
access to places. Schools, hospitals…
Nationalism – strong feelings for one’s
nation and its culture.
Pacifist – someone who does not believe
in war under any circumstances
Socialist – one who believes that the
government should own major services
and means of production.
Ellis Arnall – reformed state government and
rewrote the state constitution. During his term
as governor, the power of the governor was
Lucius D. Clay – general who was famous for
keeping American troops in Europe supplied
E.D. Rivers – “little New Deal” in Georgia
Richard Russell – US senator who helped
establish military installations in Georgia
Carl Vinson – US representative who sponsored
legislation creating the US Army Air Corps (Air