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New deal and wwii


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New deal and wwii

  1. 1. The New Deal and World War II Georgia History Chapter 18 Mrs. Holland
  2. 2.  The president of the United States when the Great Depression began was Herbert Hoover. – Even though President Hoover set up government programs to stimulate the economy, he was still blamed for the depression.  These programs lent money to keep banks and businesses operating and bout surplus farm products.
  3. 3. The New Deal  Franklin D. Roosevelt won the presidency by promising a “New Deal” – Series of economic recovery programs created in an effort to end the depression and prevent another.  Goals : – Relief – Recovery – Reform
  4. 4.  Roosevelt received treatment for his polio in Warm Springs, Georgia. – The time he spend in Georgia influenced the programs he created as part of the New Deal to help the nation recover from the Depression.
  5. 5. Governor Talmadge – Opposed minimum wage requirements of the New Deal because:  It threatened white supremacy  All jobs do not require equal labor  It would hurt private enterprise by paying too high a wage. – The New Deal was supported in Georgia by Governor E.D. Rivers.
  6. 6. Georgia’s “little New Deal”  Governor Rivers fully supported the New Deal and instituted reforms of his own called Georgia’s “little New Deal.” – Programs involved education, highway safety, and hospitals.
  7. 7. Relief Programs  Civilian Conservation Corps – set up to put young men to work in rural and forest areas, planting trees and terracing fields to prevent soil erosion.  Public Works Administration – Put men to work on public construction projects, such as schools, auditoriums, hospitals, dams, rod s, bridges and ships.
  8. 8.  The Works Progress Administration biggest and most controversial work relief program. It put construction workers, artists, musicians and writers to work. They did things like clear slums, build power plants, and providing free plays and concerts for communities.
  9. 9. Recovery Programs  Agricultural Adjustment Administration – Set up to increase farm income up to WWI levels by paying farmers to produce LESS.  Farm Security Administration – Relieve rural poverty / gave loans and assisted farmers in trying new crops and taught them farm management
  10. 10.  National Recovery Administration – helped business and industry & their employees by specifying how much would be produced, the prices to be charged and wages to be paid.  Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation – Restored confidence in banks by insuring against loss
  11. 11. Reform Programs  Rural Electrification Administration – provided electricity at affordable prices to rural areas of the country  Securities & Exchange Commission – Oversaw the buying and selling of stocks.  National Labor Relations Board – To protect workers who wanted to create unions
  12. 12.  Tennessee Valley Authority – Build dams and operated power plants to provide low cost electricity to people in seven states.  Social Security Act – set up to provide government retirement pay (pensions) to older citizens and money to help people who were unemployed or unable to work.
  13. 13. Rivers as governor  In order to pay for the programs in his “little New Deal,” he set up authorities for different projects.
  14. 14. Under Arnall’s term as Governor  The Constitution of 1877 was rewritten because it contained over 300 changes. This made it very confusing. – This new Constitution limited the powers of governor. – During his term, the poll tax was dropped, 18 year olds could vote, the white primary was abolished and he ended the use of chain gangs.  Georgia is the first state to lower the voting age to 18.
  15. 15. Talmadge as Governor  Won election by suggesting that New Deal programs would end segregation.  In 1941, the University of Georgia lost its accreditation with SACCS because Governor Talmadge fired two administrators who supported integration.
  16. 16. WWII  During the Great Depression, many nations turned to dictators to solve their economic problems.  WWII began when Britain and France declared war on Germany….Germany had invaded Poland.  The United States entered WWII when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.
  17. 17.  Hitler launched a massive three-month “lightening war” on its European neighbors. Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland and France fell to the Germans.  Germany then launched an air attack on Great Britain. In nightly raids, German bombers dropped thousands of explosives on London, but the city did not surrender. This is known as the Battle Of Britain.
  18. 18.  The “Home of the US Infantry,” with the largest infantry school in the world, was at Fort Benning, Georgia. (Near Columbus)  Lend-Lease Act – Before entering the war, the US allowed Britain to borrow or lease supplies, equipment and food in its fight against Germany.
  19. 19.  The Belle Aircraft Corporation, as well as the shipyards in coastal Georgia not only produced aircraft and ships for wartime, but also employed women to do jobs traditionally considered to be “men’s work.”  By the end of WWII, more Georgians were employed in manufacturing than agriculture.
  20. 20.  Holocaust – The WWII policy of Hitler and Nazi Germany to kill millions of innocent Jews. – Not only were the Jews targeted, but also the physically and mentally handicapped, the elderly, and those to young or weak to work.  In the beginning, the “camps” were set up to house political prisoners.
  21. 21.  May 7th, 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allies but Japan continued to fight. – President Truman gave the order to use a new secret weapon, the atomic bomb.  August 6, 1945 - a B-29 bomber dropped the first bomb on Hiroshima, instantly killing 70,000 80,000 civilians. Three days later another was dropped on Nagasaki killing about half that number.  August 15, 1945 – Japan surrenders
  22. 22. Terms  Authority – special purpose public corporation set up by the government. They perform a specific function and may be given special powers that a regular government agency cannot have (such as borrowing money).  Dictator – Ruler with absolute authority
  23. 23.  Integration – Bringing together people of different races and allowing them equal access to places. Schools, hospitals…  Nationalism – strong feelings for one’s nation and its culture.  Pacifist – someone who does not believe in war under any circumstances  Socialist – one who believes that the government should own major services and means of production.
  24. 24. People  Ellis Arnall – reformed state government and rewrote the state constitution. During his term as governor, the power of the governor was reduced.  Lucius D. Clay – general who was famous for keeping American troops in Europe supplied  E.D. Rivers – “little New Deal” in Georgia  Richard Russell – US senator who helped establish military installations in Georgia  Carl Vinson – US representative who sponsored legislation creating the US Army Air Corps (Air Force)