Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Europe Discovers the New World Georgia History Trinity Christian School Mrs. Holland
  2. 2. The Age of Discovery • European nations begin looking for their own direct route to the Indies. – The Indies was the source of silk, spices, gems and tea – Eliminate the “Middle Man” = increase profit • Europe at first believed only Europe, Africa, and Asia existed and set out to sail west in order to reach the Far East.
  3. 3. The Age of Discovery
  4. 4. 1492: Colombus Discovers the New World • Niña, Pinta & Santa María • Columbus was sure that he had found the Indies – No silk, spices or riches – He named the native “Indians” • Accompanied by Italian businessman Amerigo Vespucci – Named “America” in 1507 by a Swiss mapmaker
  5. 5. Colombus
  6. 6. Spain Claims the New World • Spain vs. Portugal – Portugal wanted an eastern route to the Far East • Portugal also had shipping routes around Africa – Spain (through Colombus) appeared to have found an eastern route
  7. 7. • 1493: Pope Alexander VI sets the Line of Demarcation – This line left present-day Georgia in possession of Spain.
  8. 8. Treaty of Tordesillas Portugal felt the Line of Demarcation favored Spain. The Treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement between Spain and Portugal, made after the Pope set the Line of Demarcation, created a new line700 miles west.
  9. 9. English Claims in the New World • 1497: John Cabot explores the northeastern coast of North America • 1498: John Cabot explores (possibly) the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida • The English felt that Cabot’s exploration entitled them to land that he “discovered.” John Cabot
  10. 10. England vs. Spain • England ignored Pope Alexander VI’s Line of Demarcation & the Treaty of Tordesillas – Spain replies with the Rights of First Discovery: A country could claim lands that its explorers found first – England claimed first discovery claims had to be followed by occupation • All powers agree that New World claims did NOT require the permission of natives!
  11. 11. Spain Comes to the Southeast • Spain’s goals: “God, Glory & Gold” • April 1513: Juan Ponce de Leon arrives at La Florida (near St. Augustine).
  12. 12. St. Augustine: First Contacts Beads and hawksbells were among the items brought by Menéndez as gifts for the Florida Indians. These were all excavated at the Menéndez camp and fort sites of 1565-66. Pottery vessels, foodstuff, shell beads, amber and animal pelts were among the items used by the Indians as exchange and gifts for the Spaniards.
  13. 13. First European Settlement in North America • 1504: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón lands in present-day South Carolina & requests permission from Spain to explore and colonize the area • July 1526: He sails from Hispanola with 600 Spanish settlers • August: Ayllón’s fleet lands in Carolina • Sept. 29, 1526: Begin construction of San Miguel de Guadalupe (McIntosh County, Ga.) • Colony plagued by illness and death – only 150 settlers survive to sail back to Hispaniola
  14. 14. Hernando de Soto explores Georgia 1537: De Soto asks the King of Spain for permission to colonize La Florida 1538: De Soto sets sail for Cuba 1539: De Soto set sail for North America 1540 (March): De Soto crosses into Georgia For the Spanish: -4-year journey of death and disappointment: little food, no gold For the Native Indians: -Weapons of stone & wood vs. guns, steel swords & armor -European diseases (ie, smallpox; 1/3 dead)
  15. 15. Hernando de Soto A drawing from Lambert A. Wilmer's Life, Travels and Adventures of Ferdinand de Soto, Discoverer of the Mississippi (1859) depicts de Soto and his men crossing the Chattahoochee River. The accidental introduction of European diseases by explorers destroyed many of the civilizations along the river's banks.
  16. 16. French Claims in the Southeast • 1524: Giovanni de Verrazano sailed from France – Basis for French claims to North America • 1562: Jean Ribault and 150 Huguenots land in Florida and sail North, looking for a place to settle. – Port Royal founded north of Savannah and the construction of Charles Fort began – Settlement abandoned due to hunger & hardship
  17. 17. French Claims, cont’d • 1564: A 2nd group of Huguenots arrive in La Florida and build Fort Caroline – Building on Spanish soil/ raiding Spanish ships • 1565: Pedro Menéndez sail from Spain with orders to drive the French out of La Florida – Fort Caroline captured & Huguenots executed
  18. 18. Spanish Settlements in La Florida • Menendez founded St. Augustine – The Gulf Stream aided Spanish ships back to the mother country (avoid pirates)
  19. 19. Spanish Missions in La Florida • To convert the Indians to Christianity (Catholicism) the Spanish built missions (church outposts) with friars (missionaries) – Usually built at the village of an important local chief – Social & Religious instruction – Instruction in reading/writing, agriculture – A place for trading
  20. 20. Guale & Mocama • Georgia was divided into 2 provinces for the purpose of missionary work: – Guale: North; b/w Savannah & Altamaha Rivers – Mocama: South; b/w Altamaha & St. Mary’s Rivers • 1566 Pedro Menendez travels the Atlantic Coast and visits the Guale Chief on St. Catherine’s Island – Missionary work slow (priest dies of malaria) and comes to a standstill • 1580s: new round of missionary work in Mocama
  21. 21. Juanillo Rebellion • 1597: Friars declare Don Juanillo unfit to assume the Chiefdom of the Guale Indians. – Juanillo calls for a revolt and missions begin to fall – The uprising was overturned by Mocama Indians (who supported the Spanish) at Cumberland Island. – 5 missionaries were executed
  22. 22. Spanish Mission Sites in Georgia
  23. 23. England Comes to North America • 16th Century: Spain is THE world superpower – Spain refuses to share; England takes by force • 1586: Sir Francis Drake burns St. Augustine • 1604: Spain and England sign a peace treaty • King James I develops the idea of chartered colonies, and in 1606 issues a charter to the Virginia Company • 1607: The Virginia Company sails from England with Virginia’s first settlers and soon settle James Town.
  24. 24. Why did England want to colonize North America? • Power & glory • Economic gain: mercantilism • Belief that England was overpopulated with poor, homeless, unemployed people • A refuge for religious groups – 1617: Separatists request permission to immigrate to America – 1619: Puritans set sail aboard the Mayflower for America
  25. 25. Mercantilism • Goal: to sell more to other countries than a country had to buy abroad • Problem: England was a small country with few resources • Solution: Colonize the New World (Find raw materials & have a ready market for manufactured goods) Exported by Colonies Imported by Colonies Fish, whale oil, furs, lumber, rum, corn, tobacco, hides, indigo, silk, naval stores  Goods made in Great Britain: Cloth, glass, tools, china, furniture, weapons, gunpowder, metalware Goods from other countries: Tea, wine, sugar, molasses
  26. 26. • Puritans: Members of a Protestant religious group who were opposed to the Church of England’s practices and wanted to change them • Pilgrims: Members of a religious group that chose to separate and break away from the Church of England (1620). Religious Refuge: Puritans
  27. 27. 3 Types of Colonies Corporate Colonies Proprietary Colonies Royal Colonies Virginia Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New Hampshire Maryland Carolina Delaware New Jersey New York Pennsylvania * Most Proprietary Colonies later became Royal Colonies.
  28. 28. English trade in Deerskin and Indian Slaves Kipahalgwa Yuchi Indians depicted with traditional hunting clothing & supplies
  29. 29. England Creates Carolina • 1663: King Charles II issues a charter for Carolina – English (firearms, tools, clothing) develop active traders with Indians (deerskins, furs) • 1670: Settlement of Charles Town angers Spanish officials • 1680: English officers lead a raid on the Spanish mission Santa Catalina de Guale – Spanish retreat; Entirely gone from Georgia by 1685.
  30. 30. Late 17th Century Claims = “The Debatable Land” • Spain: Guale & Mocama • France: St. Lawrence River to Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico • England: Carolina – 1712: divided into a southern & northern province – 1715: Yamasee Indian Revolt
  31. 31. A New Colony South of the Savannah River • 1717: Sir Robert Montgomery proposes Azilia – Goal: silk/wine production; buffer colony – Unable to raise money or enlist colonists • 1720: John Barnwell calls upon the British to build a series of small forts S and W of Carolina – 1721: construction begins on Fort King George • 1724: Jean Pierre Purry (Swiss) proposes a colony, to be named “Georgine” or “Georgia” – Proposal fails, idea survives • 1732: Oglethorpe convinces King George II to approve the colony of Georgia!
  32. 32. Fort King George

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