Gh chapter 11b


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Gh chapter 11b

  1. 1. Chapter 11: Life of the People in Antebellum Society TRINITY CHRISTIAN SCHOOL MRS. CHRISTIE SOLES
  2. 2. Antebellum: Before the [Civil W]ar 1790: Georgia was one of the poorest states (a) (b) (c) Cotton Slavery Other reasons: railroad-building system, textile mills, lumber yards, leather good factories, metal works, stone quarries 1850s: “Empire State of the South” 1860: Savannah is the largest & most important city!
  3. 3. King Cotton Comes to Georgia 1786: Sea Island Cotton from the Bahamas was introduced into Georgia   Grew only on the coastal Sea Islands Long fiber cotton; made a soft, high quality cloth
  4. 4. Short Staple Cotton  Hardy inland plant  Seeds highly entangled with cotton fiber & difficult to remove 1793: Invention of the Cotton Gin
  5. 5. King Cotton: Whitney’s Cotton Gin Enabled the growth of cotton throughout the Piedmont and Coastal Plain:  well-drained top soil, 200 day (non-frost) growing season, 2545 inches of rainfall/season, dry harvest season Piedmont Region: favorable to industry  Fast-flowing rivers powered cotton gins, textile mills, and factories Improved means of transportation of goods to the Port in Savannah   1820s: Steamboat Transportation 1840s: Railroad Transportation
  6. 6. King Cotton Labor Intensive Required many hours hard work Field Hands: planted, hoed & picked the crop  By HAND – NO machines Planters needed a ready supply of cheap labor : Slavery Cotton Production Steadily Increased    1790: 1,000 bales (mostly Sea-Island variety) 1840: 400,000+ bales (Short Staple) 1860: 700,000+ bales (Short Staple)
  7. 7. Antebellum Life Occupation # of White Georgians in 1860 Farmers 67,718 KEEP IN MIND: Farm Laborers 19,567 Laborers 11,272 Servants 5,337 Overseers 4,909 Clerks 3,626 Carpenters 3,219 For most people, life was far different than Gone with the Wind! Merchants 3,195 Planters 2,858 Factory Hands 2,454 Seamstresses 2,411 Teachers 2,123 Physicians 2,004
  8. 8. Planters: 2,858 Landowners who owned 20 or more field slaves educated, dominant in state gov’t Wealthy - but short on cash    $$ tied up in land and slaves – Not bank accounts Many unable to afford antebellum mansions Typical house: plain, unpainted, modestly furnished ; Separate smokehouse, barn, grain storeroom & outhouse, slaves quarters and overseers’ house
  9. 9. Planters (cont’d) Plantation Management:    Planters managed plantations & many became active in state and federal government Overseers directed work in the fields Planter’s wife directed the household & work involving food, clothing and health needs of the slaves
  10. 10. Planters Plantation Life: Comfortable  Home: barbeques, political gatherings  Church activities  Travel Abroad  Frequent Visitors  Riding, Hunting,  Private Libraries Children Educated in Private Schools & Academies   Sons attended school in the North Daughters attended seminaries in GA
  11. 11. Yeoman Farmers: 67,718 Owned land, usually less than 100 acres; strong sense of independence & self-respect As much land as possible was dedicated to cotton cultivation  Cotton could be readily sold for cash for the purchase of items not grown at home (cotton and coffee) and payment for debts & taxes. Grew what they ate: corn, wheat, oats, sweet potatoes, peas, beans; chickens, cows
  12. 12. Yeoman Farmers (cont’d) Dwellings:  Dogtrot cabin: 2 connected one-room log structures, covered by a roof, with a floor   Open breezeway enjoyed by farmer’s dogs Frame cottage Homemade furniture, clothes, mattresses, quilts Fireplace: cooking & heating Women: domestic chores – cooking, canning, gardening, making clothes, raising children Men: farmed, supplied family with meat, maintained farm building
  13. 13. Yeoman Farmers (cont’d) Recreation:         Shooting matches Barbecues Dancing Wrestling & fighting Hunting & fishing Quilting bees Corn shuckings County Courthouse – place to socialize
  14. 14. Poor Whites – 1 in 10 Owned no land and got by the best they could Concentrated in the pine barrens of S. GA & mountains of N. GA Crude dwellings Kept chickens and a few cattle or hogs Men: hunted and fished for food to eat or sell Women: raised small amounts of cotton & corn for cash
  15. 15. Poor Whites (cont’d) Looked down upon by everyone (including slaves) Idle troublemakers with little ambition (Low energy)   Poor Diet Diseases: malaria & hookworm Often Illiterate
  16. 16. Black Georgians (cont’d) Deprivation of fundamental human rights: Under GA law, slaves had NO political or civil liberties Slaves were protected by law from excessive discipline or murder Slave marriages were not recognized in GA   Some owners allowed informal marriages between slaves Still, slave families were often sold apart
  17. 17. Black Georgians (cont’d) 3,500 free blacks in Antebellum Georgia  Purchased their own freedom or granted freedom by their owners Usually located in cities Difficult situation:   Employed blacks were criticized for taking white jobs / Those unemployed were considered lazy Whites were suspicious that they were helping enslaved blacks escape to freedom 1819 Report of Richmond County  194 Free colored men, women & children   Women: sewing and washing Men: steamboat pilot, barber, saddle maker, carpenter, laborer
  18. 18. Black Georgians (cont’d) West African Traditions + Southern Lifestyles = African American Contributions      Gullah: language spoken in Coastal Georgia (English words, African Structure) Woodcarving, basket-making, quilting Okra, black-eyed peas, & other dishes Animal Trickster Tales used to teach wit & cleverness Spirituals, Rhythm songs, development of the banjo
  19. 19. Black Georgians Lowest level of society 99% enslaved – lives varied according to owner and work assignments Slaves in the Cotton Fields:   Worked sun-rise  sun-down with a mid-day lunch Exceptions: rainy weather, winter months & holiday seasons; most owners allowed Sundays off
  20. 20. Black Georgians (cont’d) Jobs of other slaves: easier life than field hands   Household servants, nursemaids, cooks Artisans & Factory workers  Treatment by Slave-Owners:    Some were cruel (frequent whippings) Some treated slaves as family members Most were a combination of the 2 extremes:  Slaves were an economic investment – their health was important to their productivity
  21. 21. Education Georgia’s 1st Constitution called for schools in each county; however, the Legislature did not provide the funding to establish a true state-wide public school system. Antebellum Georgians felt education was the responsibility of individuals    Children were needed to work in the fields Children lived/worked far apart on different farms Roads were in too poor of a condition to allow daily travel to schools
  22. 22. 8 1817: GA Legislature creates a “Poor School Fund” to educate needy children Parents too proud to send their children “Old Field Schools”: rural areas; one-room schoolhouses with hired school teacher; paid by local farmers; teachers often under qualified – students received rudimentary education 1850: 1/5 adults was illiterate Best education went to student who were sent to private schools & academies
  23. 23. Education (cont’d) Higher Education in Georgia University of Georgia:   1785: General Assembly chartered UGA 1801: Classes began at UGA    Graduates soon become leaders in state business and politics 1859: School of Law added to UGA 1918: Women are allowed into UGA
  24. 24. Education (cont’d) 1828: Medical College of Georgia est. in Augusta   Cholera & malaria still uncontrolled Common diseases, infections & pregnancy constant threats 1835: Oglethorpe University est. by Presbyterians 1836: Emory College est. by Methodists 1837: Mercer University est. by Baptists 1839: Georgia Female College (Wesleyan) est.
  25. 25. Religion Many denominations were represented:  Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Moravian, Baptist, Jewish & Catholics 1796: Great Revival sweeps the South     Camp meetings & revivals Blacks & whites attended Church membership increased and new churches est.
  26. 26. Religion Religion & Slavery      Early 1800s: Slavery denounced from pulpit 1830s: Slavery defended from the pulpit – eventually leads to a N-S schism If slaves attended church, they did so with their masters Slave-only religious meetings were forbidden by masters (delivery from bondage) Secret meetings were still held
  27. 27. Religion Separate Black Churches were founded during the Antebellum Period:     African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AME Zion) 1st founded in the North; opposed slavery Real growth in the South didn’t occur until after the War
  28. 28. Southern Reforms Penal Reform   1816: New law code abolishing cruel punishments 1817: GA opens a state penitentiary     Criminals were to repent (be penitent) of their drimes) 1818: GA furnished county jails with clothing, blankets, heat and medical attention 1823: Law passed making it difficult to imprison people for not paying their debts
  29. 29. Southern Reforms (cont’d) Reforms for the Needy  1842: asylum for the insane was opened in Milledgeville  1847: School for the deaf opened at Cave Springs  1852: State takes responsibility for the Georgia Academy for the Blind in Macon
  30. 30.    