Europe is a peninsula on the EurasianEurope is a peninsula on the Eurasian
continent. Because it is one largecontinent. Because it is one large
peninsula, with many smaller peninsulas,peninsula, with many smaller peninsulas,
it has been called a “peninsula ofit has been called a “peninsula of
Europe is the only continent with noEurope is the only continent with no
Its good climate and rich soil supportIts good climate and rich soil support
farming and industry.farming and industry.
Western Europe has less than 5% of theWestern Europe has less than 5% of the
earth’s landmass, but its people haveearth’s landmass, but its people have
dominated most of world history.dominated most of world history.
Western European traditions and institutionsWestern European traditions and institutions
are found on every continent.are found on every continent.
Three continents, North America, SouthThree continents, North America, South
America, and Australia are peopled byAmerica, and Australia are peopled by
descendants of the western Europeans.descendants of the western Europeans.
Northern Europe consists of theNorthern Europe consists of the
British Isles and Scandinavia.British Isles and Scandinavia.
Northern Europe is warmed by theNorthern Europe is warmed by the
North Atlantic Drift that comes ofNorth Atlantic Drift that comes of
the coast of Cananda.the coast of Cananda.
The United Kingdom has fourThe United Kingdom has four
political divisions.political divisions.
Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland
England is the largest division ofEngland is the largest division of
the United Kingdomthe United Kingdom
It is among the top tenIt is among the top ten
producers of flax fiber, hops,producers of flax fiber, hops,
sheep, green peas, carrots,sheep, green peas, carrots,
sugar beets, and rasberries.sugar beets, and rasberries.
London is theLondon is the
largest city on thelargest city on the
River ThamesRiver Thames
Off the southeast coastOff the southeast coast
of England is theof England is the
English Channel. ItEnglish Channel. It
separates Great Britainseparates Great Britain
from the Europeanfrom the European
The narrowest point in theThe narrowest point in the
channel is the Strait of Dover. Itchannel is the Strait of Dover. It
is only twenty one miles wide.is only twenty one miles wide.
On a clear day, you can see theOn a clear day, you can see the
opposite coast. At night, youopposite coast. At night, you
can see the lights.can see the lights.
The channel hasThe channel has
been calledbeen called
England’s first line ofEngland’s first line of
defense againstdefense against
enemies from theenemies from the
It is believedIt is believed
That the Strait,That the Strait,
as wellas well
as the cliffs ofas the cliffs of
Dover, wereDover, were
created bycreated by
of a land bridge.of a land bridge.
Downs are another feature ofDowns are another feature of
southeast England. They are madesoutheast England. They are made
of chalk. Both sides of the Strait, asof chalk. Both sides of the Strait, as
well as the sea floor, are made upwell as the sea floor, are made up
predominantly of chalk.predominantly of chalk.
The Downs will not support trees, butThe Downs will not support trees, but
there is good grazing for cattle andthere is good grazing for cattle and
Stonehenge is East of Bristol. PossibleStonehenge is East of Bristol. Possible
uses for this were a farmer’s almanac,uses for this were a farmer’s almanac,
occult rituals or burial mounds.occult rituals or burial mounds.
Southwestern England consists ofSouthwestern England consists of
to parks Dartmoor and Exmoor.to parks Dartmoor and Exmoor.
They protect the moors.They protect the moors.
A moor is a wasteland on a high,A moor is a wasteland on a high,
treeless plateau. It cannot betreeless plateau. It cannot be
cultivated. Fields of Heather arecultivated. Fields of Heather are
common, so moors are sometimescommon, so moors are sometimes
called heathers.called heathers.
Most Moors are fartherMost Moors are farther
north in the uplands ofnorth in the uplands of
Central England is the home ofCentral England is the home of
the Industrial Revolution.the Industrial Revolution.
Easy access to:Easy access to:
-Iron, coal, flax, and wool-Iron, coal, flax, and wool
-Easily navigable rivers-Easily navigable rivers
Northern England includes allNorthern England includes all
counties north of the River Trent.counties north of the River Trent.
The Pennines mountaains areThe Pennines mountaains are
considered the backbone ofconsidered the backbone of
England…they run down the centerEngland…they run down the center
of the Island.of the Island.
Manchester is located atManchester is located at
the foot of the Pennines. Itthe foot of the Pennines. It
is the third largestis the third largest
metropolitan area in themetropolitan area in the
British Isles.British Isles.
Less than 10% of the land is arable.Less than 10% of the land is arable.
Mild and wet climate.Mild and wet climate.
Cattle and sheep grazing.Cattle and sheep grazing.
The coal has been exhausted…The coal has been exhausted…
Many of the people still speak CelticMany of the people still speak Celtic
Outsiders find the Welsh language hardOutsiders find the Welsh language hard
to understand because of all the doubleto understand because of all the double
Samples of the Welsh language:Samples of the Welsh language:
Samples of IrishSamples of Irish
Scotland is north of England, known for itsScotland is north of England, known for its
green glens and blue lochs.green glens and blue lochs.
Glen – narrow valleys carved out by glaciersGlen – narrow valleys carved out by glaciers
Lochs – Deep, narrow lakes carved byLochs – Deep, narrow lakes carved by
The Grampian Mountains include BenThe Grampian Mountains include Ben
Nevis, the highest mountain in the BritishNevis, the highest mountain in the British
The discovery of oil andThe discovery of oil and
natural gas in the North Seanatural gas in the North Sea
has improved the economy.has improved the economy.
Aberdeen is a city off the eastAberdeen is a city off the east
coast and is called the “oilcoast and is called the “oil
capital of Europe.”capital of Europe.”
Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland
Also called UlsterAlso called Ulster
Lough Neagh is the largest freshwater lakeLough Neagh is the largest freshwater lake
in the British Isles.in the British Isles.
Belfast is the capital and largest city. WhereBelfast is the capital and largest city. Where
the Titanic was built.the Titanic was built.
Irish textiles are known for fine linen.Irish textiles are known for fine linen.
Thin rocky soil was formed by glaciers.Thin rocky soil was formed by glaciers.
Even though Ireland is north of England, it isEven though Ireland is north of England, it is
warmer because of the North Atlantic Drift.warmer because of the North Atlantic Drift.
Consistently humid. Half the time overcast.Consistently humid. Half the time overcast.
The Irish coast is surrounded byThe Irish coast is surrounded by
The grassland support cattle andThe grassland support cattle and
Decayed mosses supply peatDecayed mosses supply peat
which is burned instead of coal.which is burned instead of coal.
Sixth in the world in production ofSixth in the world in production of
Ireland is predominantly RomanIreland is predominantly Roman
Most Irishmen speak English,Most Irishmen speak English,
but with a very heavy brogue.but with a very heavy brogue.
Gaelic, or Celtic, is their ancientGaelic, or Celtic, is their ancient
Irish languageIrish language
For centuries, Ireland was a land ofFor centuries, Ireland was a land of
poor farmers.poor farmers.
The younger men left the farms forThe younger men left the farms for
the cities seeking jobs…then oftenthe cities seeking jobs…then often
immigrated to other countriesimmigrated to other countries
seeking a better life.seeking a better life.
Current exports from IrelandCurrent exports from Ireland
include Waterford crystal.include Waterford crystal.
Scandinavia – Land of theScandinavia – Land of the
Midnight Sun.Midnight Sun.
Includes five countries.Includes five countries.
Parts of Scandinavia areParts of Scandinavia are
above the Arctic Circleabove the Arctic Circle
where the sun never setswhere the sun never sets
for two months in thefor two months in the
summer and never risessummer and never rises
for two months in thefor two months in the
Norway and Sweden share theNorway and Sweden share the
largest peninsula – Thelargest peninsula – The
Scandinavian Peninsula.Scandinavian Peninsula.
Norway has fjords that cutNorway has fjords that cut
inland. (long narrow bays cut byinland. (long narrow bays cut by
glaciers and filled with seaglaciers and filled with sea
Norway’s important cities lie onNorway’s important cities lie on
the coast and use the fjords asthe coast and use the fjords as
a natural harbor.a natural harbor.
¼ of Norway is forested¼ of Norway is forested
3% is arable3% is arable
The Kolen (Chuhl uhn) mountains borderThe Kolen (Chuhl uhn) mountains border
The Galdhopiggen (GHAHL huh pig) is theThe Galdhopiggen (GHAHL huh pig) is the
highest peak. It is in southern Norway.highest peak. It is in southern Norway.
The Jostedals Glacier is to the west of theThe Jostedals Glacier is to the west of the
peak. It is the largest glacier in continentalpeak. It is the largest glacier in continental
Bergen is the principal port. It has
one of the largest merchant fleets
in the world.
The cultural center and capital is
Oslo. Oslo refines oil. Oil exports
have made Norway very rich, they
enjoy one of the worlds highest
standard of living.
The majority of workers in Norway
are in the service industry.
The work week is only 37.5 hours
Norway is the third largest exporter
of oil in the world.
The largest Scandanavian
country and the fourth
largest country in Europe.
1/3 of Sweden is lowland plains in
the south. A mild climate and
fertile soil make this Sweden’s
best agricultural region.
world wide for the
production of mixed grains and 8th
for the production of oats.
Stockholm, the capital, is the
largest city. It covers fourteen
islands that are connected by fifty
Nearly all ports on the North
Atlantic are ice free all year.
Ports on the Baltic Sea freeze on
winter. Ships enter only with the
help of icebreakers.
Sweden’s Northern Region
The mountains border with Norway.
Pine and Spruce forests cover the
Sweden is a major exporter of
Sweden has one of the
highest life expectancies
in the world and one of
the lowest birth rates.
Finland was under Russian control
for 100 years and Swedish control
for 700 years. They gained
independence in 1917.
The language, culture and physical
features are related to those of
The language is from the Uralic
family. Many are learning German
and English in order to improve
their ability to trade.
Most of the population clusters in
the southern coasts of the Baltic
Less than ¼ of the land is arable,
but the farms are self sufficient.
Recreation includes hunting, fishing
Relaxing in a hot sauna
seems to be a national past
Every apartment complex has a
sauna, as do many homes.
Helsinki is the capital, major
seaport and largest city.
There are many glacial lakes.
Finland is called the “Land of Ten
Forests cover ¾ of the land.
Timber products account for
70% of their exports.
The lakes and rivers are called
“white coal” because they
Northern Finland contains the heart of the
Laplands, which extend into Sweden,
Norway and Russia.
The Lapps call themselves Sami. They have
cared for reindeer in this region for
thousands of years. Their culture, still very
nomadic, is fading.
Once ruled England
Lies south of the rest of Scandinavia,
making winters less harsh.
Denmark lacks many natural resources so it
depends heavily on trade and ariculture.
They believe firmly in the welfare program
and have one of the highest tax rates in
The Jutland Peninsula extends
northward from Germany and
accounts for approximately
70% of Denmark’s land area.
Half of the population lives on
the ninety island east of
The capital, Copenhagen is on
Denmark’s largest island,
Copenhagen houses ¼ of the
countries population and is the
largest metropolitan area in
Denmark’s territories have included
Iceland and Greenland
Greenland is the largest island in the world.
Vikings called in Greenland to attract
settlers. In reality, 84% lies under an
icecap that averages almost a mile thick.
Greenlanders are mostly a mixture of
Eskimos and Danes. Most are employed
in the fishing industry.
Iceland – Land of Fire and Ice – because of
active volcanoes and glaciers.
Of the island 200 active volcanoes, one
erupts approximately every 5 years.
The southern coast is warmed by the North
Atlantic Drift. Temps are similar to those in
New York City. Ports stay open year
The capital, Reykjavik, houses half the
The language is still almost pure
Icelandic and is almost unchanged
from the Viking era.
Iceland has more hot springs than any
other country in the world.
The largest glacier in
(Vaht na yuh koot ul) is
bigger than all the other
glaciers of Europe