Chapter 5 part one


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Chapter 5 part one

  1. 1. Western EuropeWestern Europe Chapter 5Chapter 5 Cultural GeographyCultural Geography Mrs. HollandMrs. Holland
  2. 2. Section One Northern Europe
  3. 3. Europe is a peninsula on the EurasianEurope is a peninsula on the Eurasian continent. Because it is one largecontinent. Because it is one large peninsula, with many smaller peninsulas,peninsula, with many smaller peninsulas, it has been called a “peninsula ofit has been called a “peninsula of peninsulas.”peninsulas.” Europe is the only continent with noEurope is the only continent with no deserts.deserts. Its good climate and rich soil supportIts good climate and rich soil support farming and industry.farming and industry.
  4. 4. Western Europe has less than 5% of theWestern Europe has less than 5% of the earth’s landmass, but its people haveearth’s landmass, but its people have dominated most of world history.dominated most of world history. Western European traditions and institutionsWestern European traditions and institutions are found on every continent.are found on every continent. Three continents, North America, SouthThree continents, North America, South America, and Australia are peopled byAmerica, and Australia are peopled by descendants of the western Europeans.descendants of the western Europeans.
  5. 5. Northern Europe consists of theNorthern Europe consists of the British Isles and Scandinavia.British Isles and Scandinavia. Northern Europe is warmed by theNorthern Europe is warmed by the North Atlantic Drift that comes ofNorth Atlantic Drift that comes of the coast of Cananda.the coast of Cananda.
  6. 6. The United Kingdom has fourThe United Kingdom has four political divisions.political divisions. EnglandEngland ScotlandScotland Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland WalesWales
  7. 7. England is the largest division ofEngland is the largest division of the United Kingdomthe United Kingdom It is among the top tenIt is among the top ten producers of flax fiber, hops,producers of flax fiber, hops, sheep, green peas, carrots,sheep, green peas, carrots, sugar beets, and rasberries.sugar beets, and rasberries.
  8. 8. London is theLondon is the largest city on thelargest city on the River ThamesRiver Thames (Temz).(Temz).
  9. 9. Off the southeast coastOff the southeast coast of England is theof England is the English Channel. ItEnglish Channel. It separates Great Britainseparates Great Britain from the Europeanfrom the European continent.continent.
  10. 10. The narrowest point in theThe narrowest point in the channel is the Strait of Dover. Itchannel is the Strait of Dover. It is only twenty one miles only twenty one miles wide. On a clear day, you can see theOn a clear day, you can see the opposite coast. At night, youopposite coast. At night, you can see the lights.can see the lights.
  11. 11. The channel hasThe channel has been calledbeen called England’s first line ofEngland’s first line of defense againstdefense against enemies from theenemies from the
  12. 12. It is believedIt is believed That the Strait,That the Strait, as wellas well as the cliffs ofas the cliffs of Dover, wereDover, were created bycreated by erosionerosion of a land bridge.of a land bridge.
  13. 13. Downs are another feature ofDowns are another feature of southeast England. They are madesoutheast England. They are made of chalk. Both sides of the Strait, asof chalk. Both sides of the Strait, as well as the sea floor, are made upwell as the sea floor, are made up predominantly of chalk.predominantly of chalk. The Downs will not support trees, butThe Downs will not support trees, but there is good grazing for cattle andthere is good grazing for cattle and sheep.sheep.
  14. 14. Stonehenge is East of Bristol. PossibleStonehenge is East of Bristol. Possible uses for this were a farmer’s almanac,uses for this were a farmer’s almanac, occult rituals or burial mounds.occult rituals or burial mounds.
  15. 15. Southwestern England consists ofSouthwestern England consists of to parks Dartmoor and parks Dartmoor and Exmoor. They protect the moors.They protect the moors. A moor is a wasteland on a high,A moor is a wasteland on a high, treeless plateau. It cannot betreeless plateau. It cannot be cultivated. Fields of Heather arecultivated. Fields of Heather are common, so moors are sometimescommon, so moors are sometimes called heathers.called heathers.
  16. 16. Most Moors are fartherMost Moors are farther north in the uplands ofnorth in the uplands of Scotland.Scotland.
  17. 17. Central England is the home ofCentral England is the home of the Industrial Revolution.the Industrial Revolution. Easy access to:Easy access to: -Iron, coal, flax, and wool-Iron, coal, flax, and wool -Easily navigable rivers-Easily navigable rivers
  18. 18. Northern England includes allNorthern England includes all counties north of the River Trent.counties north of the River Trent. The Pennines mountaains areThe Pennines mountaains are considered the backbone ofconsidered the backbone of England…they run down the centerEngland…they run down the center of the Island.of the Island.
  19. 19. Manchester is located atManchester is located at the foot of the Pennines. Itthe foot of the Pennines. It is the third largestis the third largest metropolitan area in themetropolitan area in the British Isles.British Isles.
  20. 20. WalesWales Less than 10% of the land is arable.Less than 10% of the land is arable. Mild and wet climate.Mild and wet climate. Cattle and sheep grazing.Cattle and sheep grazing. The coal has been exhausted…The coal has been exhausted… Many of the people still speak CelticMany of the people still speak Celtic Outsiders find the Welsh language hardOutsiders find the Welsh language hard to understand because of all the doubleto understand because of all the double consonants…consonants…
  21. 21. Samples of the Welsh language:Samples of the Welsh language: Samples of IrishSamples of Irish
  22. 22. ScotlandScotland Scotland is north of England, known for itsScotland is north of England, known for its green glens and blue glens and blue lochs. Glen – narrow valleys carved out by glaciersGlen – narrow valleys carved out by glaciers Lochs – Deep, narrow lakes carved byLochs – Deep, narrow lakes carved by glaciers.glaciers. The Grampian Mountains include BenThe Grampian Mountains include Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the BritishNevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles.Isles.
  23. 23. The discovery of oil andThe discovery of oil and natural gas in the North Seanatural gas in the North Sea has improved the economy.has improved the economy. Aberdeen is a city off the eastAberdeen is a city off the east coast and is called the “oilcoast and is called the “oil capital of Europe.”capital of Europe.”
  24. 24. Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland Also called UlsterAlso called Ulster ProtestantProtestant Lough Neagh is the largest freshwater lakeLough Neagh is the largest freshwater lake in the British the British Isles. Belfast is the capital and largest city. WhereBelfast is the capital and largest city. Where the Titanic was built.the Titanic was built. Irish textiles are known for fine linen.Irish textiles are known for fine linen.
  25. 25. IrelandIreland Thin rocky soil was formed by glaciers.Thin rocky soil was formed by glaciers. Even though Ireland is north of England, it isEven though Ireland is north of England, it is warmer because of the North Atlantic Drift.warmer because of the North Atlantic Drift. Consistently humid. Half the time overcast.Consistently humid. Half the time overcast.
  26. 26. The Irish coast is surrounded byThe Irish coast is surrounded by mountains.mountains. The grassland support cattle andThe grassland support cattle and horses.horses. Decayed mosses supply peatDecayed mosses supply peat which is burned instead of coal.which is burned instead of coal. Sixth in the world in production ofSixth in the world in production of zinc.zinc.
  27. 27. Ireland is predominantly RomanIreland is predominantly Roman Catholic.Catholic. Most Irishmen speak English,Most Irishmen speak English, but with a very heavy brogue.but with a very heavy brogue. Gaelic, or Celtic, is their ancientGaelic, or Celtic, is their ancient Irish languageIrish language
  28. 28. For centuries, Ireland was a land ofFor centuries, Ireland was a land of poor farmers.poor farmers. The younger men left the farms forThe younger men left the farms for the cities seeking jobs…then oftenthe cities seeking jobs…then often immigrated to other countriesimmigrated to other countries seeking a better life.seeking a better life. Current exports from IrelandCurrent exports from Ireland include Waterford crystal.include Waterford crystal.
  29. 29. Scandinavia – Land of theScandinavia – Land of the Midnight Sun.Midnight Sun. Includes five countries.Includes five countries. NorwayNorway SwedenSweden FinlandFinland DenmarkDenmark IcelandIceland
  30. 30. Parts of Scandinavia areParts of Scandinavia are above the Arctic Circleabove the Arctic Circle where the sun never setswhere the sun never sets for two months in thefor two months in the summer and never risessummer and never rises for two months in thefor two months in the winter.winter.
  31. 31. Norway and Sweden share theNorway and Sweden share the largest peninsula – Thelargest peninsula – The Scandinavian Peninsula.Scandinavian Peninsula. Norway has fjords that cutNorway has fjords that cut inland. (long narrow bays cut byinland. (long narrow bays cut by glaciers and filled with seaglaciers and filled with sea water.water.
  32. 32. Norway’s important cities lie onNorway’s important cities lie on the coast and use the fjords asthe coast and use the fjords as a natural harbor.a natural harbor. ¼ of Norway is forested¼ of Norway is forested 3% is arable3% is arable
  33. 33. The Kolen (Chuhl uhn) mountains borderThe Kolen (Chuhl uhn) mountains border Sweden.Sweden. The Galdhopiggen (GHAHL huh pig) is theThe Galdhopiggen (GHAHL huh pig) is the highest peak. It is in southern Norway.highest peak. It is in southern Norway. The Jostedals Glacier is to the west of theThe Jostedals Glacier is to the west of the peak. It is the largest glacier in continentalpeak. It is the largest glacier in continental Europe.Europe.
  34. 34. Bergen is the principal port. It has one of the largest merchant fleets in the world. The cultural center and capital is Oslo. Oslo refines oil. Oil exports have made Norway very rich, they enjoy one of the worlds highest standard of living.
  35. 35. The majority of workers in Norway are in the service industry. The work week is only 37.5 hours long. Norway is the third largest exporter of oil in the world.
  36. 36. Sweden The largest Scandanavian country and the fourth largest country in Europe.
  37. 37. 1/3 of Sweden is lowland plains in the south. A mild climate and fertile soil make this Sweden’s best agricultural region. Ranks 5th world wide for the production of mixed grains and 8th for the production of oats.
  38. 38. Stockholm, the capital, is the largest city. It covers fourteen islands that are connected by fifty bridges.
  39. 39. Nearly all ports on the North Atlantic are ice free all year. Ports on the Baltic Sea freeze on winter. Ships enter only with the help of icebreakers.
  40. 40. Sweden’s Northern Region The mountains border with Norway. Pine and Spruce forests cover the region. Sweden is a major exporter of timeber products.
  41. 41. Sweden has one of the highest life expectancies in the world and one of the lowest birth rates.
  42. 42. Finland Finland was under Russian control for 100 years and Swedish control for 700 years. They gained independence in 1917.
  43. 43. The language, culture and physical features are related to those of Russia. The language is from the Uralic family. Many are learning German and English in order to improve their ability to trade.
  44. 44. Most of the population clusters in the southern coasts of the Baltic Sea. Less than ¼ of the land is arable, but the farms are self sufficient. Recreation includes hunting, fishing and camping.
  45. 45. Relaxing in a hot sauna seems to be a national past time. Every apartment complex has a sauna, as do many homes.
  46. 46. Helsinki is the capital, major seaport and largest city. There are many glacial lakes. Finland is called the “Land of Ten Thousand Lakes.”
  47. 47. Forests cover ¾ of the land. Timber products account for 70% of their exports. The lakes and rivers are called “white coal” because they provide hydroelectricity.
  48. 48. Northern Finland contains the heart of the Laplands, which extend into Sweden, Norway and Russia. The Lapps call themselves Sami. They have cared for reindeer in this region for thousands of years. Their culture, still very nomadic, is fading.
  49. 49. Denmark Once ruled England Lies south of the rest of Scandinavia, making winters less harsh. Denmark lacks many natural resources so it depends heavily on trade and ariculture. They believe firmly in the welfare program and have one of the highest tax rates in the world!
  50. 50. The Jutland Peninsula extends northward from Germany and accounts for approximately 70% of Denmark’s land area. Half of the population lives on the ninety island east of Jutland.
  51. 51. The capital, Copenhagen is on Denmark’s largest island, Zeeland. Copenhagen houses ¼ of the countries population and is the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia.
  52. 52. Denmark’s territories have included Iceland and Greenland Greenland is the largest island in the world. Vikings called in Greenland to attract settlers. In reality, 84% lies under an icecap that averages almost a mile thick. Greenlanders are mostly a mixture of Eskimos and Danes. Most are employed in the fishing industry.
  53. 53. Iceland – Land of Fire and Ice – because of active volcanoes and glaciers. Of the island 200 active volcanoes, one erupts approximately every 5 years. The southern coast is warmed by the North Atlantic Drift. Temps are similar to those in New York City. Ports stay open year around.
  54. 54. The capital, Reykjavik, houses half the population. The language is still almost pure Icelandic and is almost unchanged from the Viking era. Iceland has more hot springs than any other country in the world.
  55. 55. The largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajokull (Vaht na yuh koot ul) is bigger than all the other glaciers of Europe combined.