Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Age of Reason
World History
Chapter 15
Mrs. Stephanie Holland
The Age of Reason is a period during
the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries when many individuals
refused to acknowledge...
• The belief that sees reason as the only
sure source of knowledge and
progress is rationalism.
• Philosophes – challenged...
• The philosophies were primarily spread
through Encyclopedie. (Multi-volume
books with articles on most any subject.)
The...
• Modern concepts of chemistry came
from the medieval practices of mixing
elixirs and potions.
Scientific Method
• 1. Recognizing the inadequacy of
existing knowledge to explain a given
question.
• 2. Gathering observ...
• 4. Choosing the most appropriate
conclusion to explain the
observations.
• 5. Verifying the derived conclusion by
furthe...
Important People
• Bacon – Novum Organum .
Questioned existing knowledgeAdvocated careful observation and
experimentation-...
• Copernicus – Questioned the theory
that the universe is “earth-centered”.
• Used telescope and astrolabe to study
the st...
• Descartes – Relied on reason and
methods of mathematics. Start simple
and through logic move to another
more complex tru...
• Galileo – Best-known astronomer.
Improved the telescope. Suggested
the use of the pendulum to measure
time.
• Harvey – F...
• Jenner – Developed the smallpox
vaccine.
• Lavoisier – Father of Modern
Chemistry.
• Leeuwenhoek – Improved the
microsco...
• Mercator – devised the flat map.
• Paracelsus – studied disease and
suggested that chemicals could be
used to treat it.
...
• Priestley – Discovered the chemical
substances of ammonia, oxygen and
carbon dioxide.
• Boyle – found that increasing
pr...
Literature of the Age of Reason was characterized by
an imitation of classical works of Greece and Rome.

• The Arts:
• De...
• Moliere – French comedies
• Swift – Gulliver’s Travels

• Rousseau – The Social Contract.
Maintained that government sho...
Philosophies of the Enlightenment
• Montesquieu – defended natural
rights and the idea that men could
change their governm...
• Voltaire – Leading figure of
Enlightenment. Outspoken critic of
abuses in society such as religious and
political intole...
• Diderot – edited Encyclopedie and
wrote several hundred articles for
them.
• Rousseau – Favored emotion and
sentiment ab...
• Rembrandt – A Dutch painter known
for his chiaroscuro effect (contrasting
light and dark)
• El Greco – known for creatin...
• Monteverdi – Leading composer of
baroque music, most famous for
operas.
• Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley were
hymn write...
• Rococo style - delicate and feminine
• Baroque –
Dramatic, turbulent, sensual
• Neoclassical – The orderly, formal and
b...
Religion
• Deists – saw God as the Creator who
no longer intervened in human
affairs.
• Deism was NOT associated with the
...
• Pietism – word originated as a derogatory
term for those who studied the Bible.
• Spencer – outlined failures of the chu...
• Empiricism - philosophy that “all
knowledge comes through experience.”
• Pantheism – philosophy that everything
is a par...
• The Great Awakening – eighteenthcentury American revival.
• Wesley’s work inspired spiritual revival
and broke the apath...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Age of reason

7,995 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Age of reason

  1. 1. Age of Reason World History Chapter 15 Mrs. Stephanie Holland
  2. 2. The Age of Reason is a period during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when many individuals refused to acknowledge the authority of the Scripture and instead exalted their own reason to a place of extreme authority.
  3. 3. • The belief that sees reason as the only sure source of knowledge and progress is rationalism. • Philosophes – challenged the values of society, sought to conform society to their ideas, and encouraged religious tolerance.
  4. 4. • The philosophies were primarily spread through Encyclopedie. (Multi-volume books with articles on most any subject.) They were opposed by the Roman Catholic Church and the French government because they felt it undermined their authority. • The Eighteenth century intellectual movement is known as Enlightenment. A strong emphasis was put on the power of human reason.
  5. 5. • Modern concepts of chemistry came from the medieval practices of mixing elixirs and potions.
  6. 6. Scientific Method • 1. Recognizing the inadequacy of existing knowledge to explain a given question. • 2. Gathering observations in an attempt to find possible answers. • 3. Seeking to find a pattern in the observations upon which to base conclusions or theories.
  7. 7. • 4. Choosing the most appropriate conclusion to explain the observations. • 5. Verifying the derived conclusion by further observations and experimentation.
  8. 8. Important People • Bacon – Novum Organum . Questioned existing knowledgeAdvocated careful observation and experimentation-Advocated forming tentative conclusions, then gathering information to verify results. (Inductive Reasoning)
  9. 9. • Copernicus – Questioned the theory that the universe is “earth-centered”. • Used telescope and astrolabe to study the stars and planets. Concluded that the universe is sun centered – Heliocentric Theory. • The Roman Catholic Church supported the geocentric theory and branded those who accepted the heliocentric theory as heretics.
  10. 10. • Descartes – Relied on reason and methods of mathematics. Start simple and through logic move to another more complex truth. “I doubt, therefore I think; I think, therefore I am.” (Deductive reasoning)
  11. 11. • Galileo – Best-known astronomer. Improved the telescope. Suggested the use of the pendulum to measure time. • Harvey – Father of Experimental Biology-carefully studied the heart and blood circulation. Concluded that the heart alone pumps blood.
  12. 12. • Jenner – Developed the smallpox vaccine. • Lavoisier – Father of Modern Chemistry. • Leeuwenhoek – Improved the microscope and discovered the existence of microbes and bacteria.
  13. 13. • Mercator – devised the flat map. • Paracelsus – studied disease and suggested that chemicals could be used to treat it. • Isaac Newton – Invention of the reflecting telescope, laws of gravity and wrote Principia
  14. 14. • Priestley – Discovered the chemical substances of ammonia, oxygen and carbon dioxide. • Boyle – found that increasing pressure on a gas reduces its volume and decreasing the pressure expanded its volume.
  15. 15. Literature of the Age of Reason was characterized by an imitation of classical works of Greece and Rome. • The Arts: • Defoe – Robinson Crusoe • Gibbon – Decline and fall of the Roman Empire • Pope – “To err is human, to forgive is divine.”
  16. 16. • Moliere – French comedies • Swift – Gulliver’s Travels • Rousseau – The Social Contract. Maintained that government should be built upon and carry out the “general will” of the people. (majority rule)
  17. 17. Philosophies of the Enlightenment • Montesquieu – defended natural rights and the idea that men could change their government. Believed that the liberty of the English was due to a separation of the three powers – legislative, executive and judicial. • Impacted the framers of the United States Constitution.
  18. 18. • Voltaire – Leading figure of Enlightenment. Outspoken critic of abuses in society such as religious and political intolerance. Hated organized religion. Advocated religion ruled by reason. Championed freedom of the press.
  19. 19. • Diderot – edited Encyclopedie and wrote several hundred articles for them. • Rousseau – Favored emotion and sentiment above reason. Had many ideas about the education of our children. Father of Romanticism. Government should carry out the “general will” of the people.
  20. 20. • Rembrandt – A Dutch painter known for his chiaroscuro effect (contrasting light and dark) • El Greco – known for creating figures with elongated bodies and limbs.
  21. 21. • Monteverdi – Leading composer of baroque music, most famous for operas. • Isaac Watts and Charles Wesley were hymn writers. • Polyphony – term applied to music with several intertwined melody lines.
  22. 22. • Rococo style - delicate and feminine • Baroque – Dramatic, turbulent, sensual • Neoclassical – The orderly, formal and balanced approach of Enlightenment.
  23. 23. Religion • Deists – saw God as the Creator who no longer intervened in human affairs. • Deism was NOT associated with the spiritual awakening of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. • Viewed the universe as a machine • Built on human wisdom – not the Bible
  24. 24. • Pietism – word originated as a derogatory term for those who studied the Bible. • Spencer – outlined failures of the church and called for spiritual renewal. • Francke – trained Pietist pastors and missionaries. Established an orphanage, schools and a Bible printing organization. His efforts established mission work in India and America. • Zinzendorf – Became leader of the Moravians
  25. 25. • Empiricism - philosophy that “all knowledge comes through experience.” • Pantheism – philosophy that everything is a part of one great substance called “God.”
  26. 26. • The Great Awakening – eighteenthcentury American revival. • Wesley’s work inspired spiritual revival and broke the apathetic attitude among profession Christians. Revivals helped improve the moral condition and restrain social upheaval. Stimulated interest in Christian education and led to the establishment of the first Sunday Schools. Encouraged the production of good Christian literature and music.

×