Migrations Western Balkans by Emilio Cocco


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Migrations Western Balkans by Emilio Cocco

  1. 1. Migration and Integration from the perspective of the Western Balkans Emilio Cocco
  2. 2. Topics • Migrations • Balkans post IIWW • Integration and Citizenship
  3. 3. Migration graph
  4. 4. PUSH and PULL model • PUSH AND PULL FACTORS OF MIGRATION • Push Factors—Factors that make you want to leave a place • • Economic factors: Lack of employment Natural disasters (earthquakes, floods) Lack of food or shelter Lower standard of living • • Social Factors: Lack of health care Lack of educational opportunities Lack of religious tolerance • • Political Factors: Unfair legal system Disenfranchisement (Not being able to vote) or lack of governmental tolerance War and terrorism • Pull Factors—Factors that draw you to live in a place • • Economic Factors: Hope for better employment More money and food Better shelter Hope for family to have a higher standard of living • • Social Factors: Encouragement from family and friends Better health care Better educational opportunities Religious tolerance • • Political Factors: To gain protection under the law Right to vote and freedom from persecution Safety
  5. 5. Balkan migrations in the decade of the cold war • Ethnic and Labor migrations (tab. 1) • From the 1960s : strong economic motives and supportive policies, i.e. Yugoslavia growing till the 1970s with a peak in 1973 (850.000 migrants to Western Europe: Germany, Austria, Switzerland mostly) • 1975-1985 reverse trend: restrictive policies of hosting countries (drop to 500.000 in 1985) • 1985-1990 new growth for the political, social and economic deterioration of in YU (550.000 in 1990) • But if we consider family members/inactive population (countries of destination statistics) the figure reaches 1.3 million! • Conflicting representations depending on the methodology and the way the problem is approached.
  6. 6. 1990s • 1) Ethnic conflicts and forced migrations. (displacements, refugees, asylum seekers, etc.) • 2) “spontaneous” migration flows previously controlled by the state. • 3) Not only origin but also transit. Illegal and informal networks and lack of statistics. (negative stereotypes, “yugo”)
  7. 7. Comparative outlook • BiH greater losses in 1990-1995 (almost 1 million out of 4,3 millions) partly recovered in 1995-2000. • Albania 700.000 “losses” in the 1990s • Slovenia and Croatia have positive trends (countries of immigration in the 1990s) • Macedonia and Serbia-Montenegro alternates positive and negative trends.