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Nitrogen fertilization impacts
   on C sequestration and
    substitution in Pacific
     Northwest Forests

    Rob Harri...
Luna




       Julia Butterfly (Hill)
Snowfall at Mt Rainier, Paradise Ranger Station
                   1200


                                                ...
Atmospheric CO2
Mechanisms for Impact on
Deep Soil
(a)∆ in photosynthate allocation, deep vs.
shallow rooting
(b)∆ in qual...
Objectives
1) Due to the recent incorporation of atmospheric CO2
   into tree wood, substitution of wood for concrete
   a...
N
College of Forest Resources
                            University of Washington
                            Box 352100
  ...
Method of biomass                                      cookie 1
            determination
            For each log section...
37.6 Mg C/ha average C increase
Potential tree C sequestration impacts of PNW fertilization
If all commercial forest land in PNW was fertilized
          ...
Excess of 3.4 GtC


          (8)
grid        SD   CD


                                 ID
           Forest floor



            O
            A
         ...
As horizons were extracted and sieved with the 25mm
screen, the components were weighed in the field. This
is material fro...
Samples of <25 mm material were brought back to the lab
for texture, moisture, color & nutrient analyses. Above is
Mud Mt....
8.0 Mg C/ha average C increase
Potential soil C sequestration impacts of PNW fertilization
If all commercial forest land in PNW was fertilized
          ...
Wilson et al., 2006
Conclusions
1) Forest fertilization in the PNW yields increases in forest
   productivity though though still a relatively...
LEACHATE COLLECTIONS FROM 4
TENSION LYSIMETERS AT ONE PLOT
                 • O horizon darkest
                 • A horiz...
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest
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Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest

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Nitrogen Fertalizer Impacts on Carbon Sequestration and Substitution in the Pacific Northwest

  1. 1. Nitrogen fertilization impacts on C sequestration and substitution in Pacific Northwest Forests Rob Harrison, APES reader College of the Environment (July 1) University of Washington Seattle, WA
  2. 2. Luna Julia Butterfly (Hill)
  3. 3. Snowfall at Mt Rainier, Paradise Ranger Station 1200 inches at paradise 1000 800 snofall (inches) 600 400 200 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 year of winter starting
  4. 4. Atmospheric CO2 Mechanisms for Impact on Deep Soil (a)∆ in photosynthate allocation, deep vs. shallow rooting (b)∆ in quality of litterfall = ∆’s rate of decomposition and DOC quality (c)∆ in T or moisture affects microbial decomposition, production and “quality” of DOC (d)∆’s in respiration affect formation of H2CO3, degassing of CO2, formation of CO3 and leaching of of H2CO3 (e)DOC production in and moving into deeper soil profile more likely to adsorb rather than respire (f)Removal of OM with harvest reduces high-quality DOC leaching and “priming” of soil OM decomposition Soil CO2 evolution allocation (b DO (a C harvest ) removals ) amendments understory CO2 from soil, microbe, root (a root respiration (c) exudates (d (f) adsorption, ) oxidation CO3 ) CO3 dissolution formation (e ) DOC leaching H2CO3 leaching
  5. 5. Objectives 1) Due to the recent incorporation of atmospheric CO2 into tree wood, substitution of wood for concrete and/or steel in construction reduces CO2 in the atmosphere. 2) When PNW forests are fertilized with N, any increases in wood production can result in additional CO2 in soil and biomass. The effect of N fertilization on substitution hasn’t been considered. 3) Our objectives were to quantify this soil, forest and substitution effects.
  6. 6. N
  7. 7. College of Forest Resources University of Washington Box 352100 Seattle Washington 98195-2100 206-543-5355 phone 206-685-3091 fax SILVICULTURE NUTRITION WOOD Q UALITY MODELING
  8. 8. Method of biomass cookie 1 determination For each log section/cookie: V1 = 1/3 * L * ((A1+A2+(A1*A2)^0.5) V * % bark * bark density = bark 2 diam. each side biomass (mm) 4 bark thickness (0.5mm) V * % bolewood * density = bolewood 6 cookie thickness (0.1 biomass mm) % bark present/absent A1=pi*r1*r2 A2=pi*r1*r2 c1 c2 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 c8 variable variable top stump diameters heights
  9. 9. 37.6 Mg C/ha average C increase
  10. 10. Potential tree C sequestration impacts of PNW fertilization If all commercial forest land in PNW was fertilized 37.6 Mg C /ha increase over 40 y rota tion 20,900,000 hectares m anage able forest land in W A and OR 785,840,000 Mg C 40 y rotation 0.786 Gigaton C 0.020 Gigaton C/yea r Currently only about 25,000 ha fertilized/y in PNW 37.6 Mg C /ha increase over 40 y rota tion 1,200,000 hectares m anage able forest land in W A and OR 45,120,000 Mg C 40 y rotation 0.045 Gigaton C 0.001 Gigaton C/yea r
  11. 11. Excess of 3.4 GtC (8)
  12. 12. grid SD CD ID Forest floor O A E Horizons 25 cm B 55 cm 85 cm
  13. 13. As horizons were extracted and sieved with the 25mm screen, the components were weighed in the field. This is material from the Bw horizon of Alderwood (glacial)
  14. 14. Samples of <25 mm material were brought back to the lab for texture, moisture, color & nutrient analyses. Above is Mud Mt. soil (volcanic). Left to right – A to the lowest Bs horizon. Once dug and bulk density (Db) measured, the corer is used to bore holes in the pit sides for lysimeter insertion. After lab samples are removed, all material from each horizon is bagged (upper right) and then returned to the pit at the original depth on filling.
  15. 15. 8.0 Mg C/ha average C increase
  16. 16. Potential soil C sequestration impacts of PNW fertilization If all commercial forest land in PNW was fertilized 8.0 Mg C /ha increase over 40 y rota tion 20,900,000 hectares m anage able forest land in W A and OR 167,200,000 Mg C 40 y rotation 0.167 Gigaton C 0.004 Gigaton C/yea r Currently only about 25,000 ha fertilized/y in PNW 8.0 Mg C /ha increase over 40 y rota tion 1,200,000 hectares m anage able forest land in W A and OR 9,600,000 Mg C 40 y rotation 0.010 Gigaton C 0.0002 Gigaton C/yea r
  17. 17. Wilson et al., 2006
  18. 18. Conclusions 1) Forest fertilization in the PNW yields increases in forest productivity though though still a relatively small (0.56%) impact on the Global C cycle. 2) Most PNW forest C is in soil, but soil increment response to N is relatively small and long-term impacts unknown. 3) Over long periods of time, substitution of wood for concrete, steel and other products will have the largest impact on global CO2 for both unfertilized and fertilized forests. At age 150 y, production forests exceed unharvested forests in net C impact. Old-growth forests do not sequester additional C. 4) In the long-term, it is absolutely essential that some forest products be removed and used to displace other materials that result in higher net CO2 to the atmosphere.
  19. 19. LEACHATE COLLECTIONS FROM 4 TENSION LYSIMETERS AT ONE PLOT • O horizon darkest • A horizon least reliable • B horizon color varies • C or deep B horizon most predictable (good yield and colorless)

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