Globalization

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  • Globalization

    1. 1. 1. MEANING AND CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION
    2. 2. 1.1 MEANING OF GLOBALISATION
    3. 3. 1.1 MEANING OF GLOBALISATIONGLOBALISATION IS A PROCESS IN WHICH:
    4. 4. 1.1 MEANING OF GLOBALISATIONGLOBALISATION IS A PROCESS IN WHICH:• TIME AND SPACE CONSTRAINTS DIMINISH. COUNTRIES HAVE MORE FREQUENT, DIVERSE AND IMPORTANT INTERACTIONS, THUS FORMING AN INTEGRATED WORLD.
    5. 5. 1.1 MEANING OF GLOBALISATIONGLOBALISATION IS A PROCESS IN WHICH:• TIME AND SPACE CONSTRAINTS DIMINISH. COUNTRIES HAVE MORE FREQUENT, DIVERSE AND IMPORTANT INTERACTIONS, THUS FORMING AN INTEGRATED WORLD.• PEOPLE, ORGNISATIONS, SOCIAL GROUPS IN DIFFERENT PLACES BECOME MORE INTERDEPENDENT AND INTERRELATED.
    6. 6. GLOBALISATION: A WORLDWIDE TRENDWHAT HAS GLOBALISATION TO DO WITH ME? DOES GLOBALISATION AFFECT US?
    7. 7. GLOBALISATION: A WORLDWIDE TREND LEADS TO ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES; ENCOURAGES:WHAT HAS GLOBALISATION TO DO WITH ME? DOES GLOBALISATION AFFECT US?
    8. 8. GLOBALISATION: A WORLDWIDE TREND LEADS TO ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES; ENCOURAGES: GLOBALISATIONWHAT HAS GLOBALISATION TO DO WITH ME? DOES GLOBALISATION AFFECT US?
    9. 9. GLOBALISATION: A WORLDWIDE TREND LEADS TO ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES; ENCOURAGES: ECONOMICGLOBALISATION GLOBALISATION WHAT HAS GLOBALISATION TO DO WITH ME? DOES GLOBALISATION AFFECT US?
    10. 10. GLOBALISATION: A WORLDWIDE TREND LEADS TO ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES; ENCOURAGES: ECONOMIC POLITICALGLOBALISATION GLOBALISATION GLOBALISATION WHAT HAS GLOBALISATION TO DO WITH ME? DOES GLOBALISATION AFFECT US?
    11. 11. GLOBALISATION: A WORLDWIDE TREND LEADS TO ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL CHANGES; ENCOURAGES: ECONOMIC POLITICALGLOBALISATION GLOBALISATION GLOBALISATION CULTURAL GLOBALISATION WHAT HAS GLOBALISATION TO DO WITH ME? DOES GLOBALISATION AFFECT US?
    12. 12. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION
    13. 13. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION A. BREAKING TIME AND SPACE CONSTRAINTS
    14. 14. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION A. BREAKING TIME AND SPACE CONSTRAINTS • GLOBAL TRANSPORTATION NETWORK REDUCES THE TIME AND SPACE BETWEEN PLACES
    15. 15. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION A. BREAKING TIME AND SPACE CONSTRAINTS • GLOBAL TRANSPORTATION NETWORK REDUCES THE TIME AND SPACE BETWEEN PLACES • INFORMATION TRANSMISSION IS NOT LIMITED BY TIME AND SPACE
    16. 16. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION A. BREAKING TIME AND SPACE CONSTRAINTS • GLOBAL TRANSPORTATION NETWORK REDUCES THE TIME AND SPACE BETWEEN PLACES • INFORMATION TRANSMISSION IS NOT LIMITED BY TIME AND SPACE • EVENTS HAPPEN IN DIFFERENT PLACES AFFECT EACH OTHER
    17. 17. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES ARE LESS RESTRICTED BY NATIONAL BORDERS
    18. 18. ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES ARE LESS RESTRICTED BY NATIONAL BORDERS Area Example • Transnational activities are more frequentEconomic • Countries have to follow international regulationsPolitical Counties jointly deal with global affairs • Different cultures affect each otherCultural • A transnational culture is formed
    19. 19. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION B. INCREASING MOBILITY
    20. 20. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION B. INCREASING MOBILITY • CAPITAL, RESOURCES AND GOODS FLOW ACROSS BOUNDARIES
    21. 21. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION B. INCREASING MOBILITY • CAPITAL, RESOURCES AND GOODS FLOW ACROSS BOUNDARIES • PEOPLE CAN TRAVEL TO, LIVE OR WORK IN OTHER PLACES EASILY
    22. 22. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION B. INCREASING MOBILITY • CAPITAL, RESOURCES AND GOODS FLOW ACROSS BOUNDARIES • PEOPLE CAN TRAVEL TO, LIVE OR WORK IN OTHER PLACES EASILY • INFORMATION CAN BE SPREAD QUICKLY FROM PLACE TO PLACE
    23. 23. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION C. INCREASING INTERACTION AND EXCHANGE
    24. 24. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION C. INCREASING INTERACTION AND EXCHANGE • PEOPLE HAVE MORE CHANCES TO INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER
    25. 25. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION C. INCREASING INTERACTION AND EXCHANGE • PEOPLE HAVE MORE CHANCES TO INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER • MORE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL INTEGRATION APPEARS BETWEEN COUNTRIES
    26. 26. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION D. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS ACROSS THE WORLD
    27. 27. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION D. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS ACROSS THE WORLD • MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION
    28. 28. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION D. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS ACROSS THE WORLD • MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION • INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION
    29. 29. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATION D. INTERCONNECTING NETWORKS ACROSS THE WORLD • MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION • INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION • INTERNATIONAL NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATION
    30. 30. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATIONE. ESTABLISHMENT OF TRANSNATIONAL RULES
    31. 31. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATIONE. ESTABLISHMENT OF TRANSNATIONAL RULES • INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS HAVE GRADUALLY SET UP GLOBAL SYSTEMS:
    32. 32. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATIONE. ESTABLISHMENT OF TRANSNATIONAL RULES • INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS HAVE GRADUALLY SET UP GLOBAL SYSTEMS: → TO FACILITATE GLOBAL TRADE AND FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES
    33. 33. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBALISATIONE. ESTABLISHMENT OF TRANSNATIONAL RULES • INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS HAVE GRADUALLY SET UP GLOBAL SYSTEMS: → TO FACILITATE GLOBAL TRADE AND FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES → TO FACILITATE NEGOTIATIONS
    34. 34. 1.3 DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBALISATION
    35. 35. 1.3 DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBALISATION OPPORTUNITY
    36. 36. 1.3 DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBALISATION • ENCOURAGING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION OPPORTUNITY
    37. 37. 1.3 DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBALISATION • ENCOURAGING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION • PROMOTING ECONOMIC GROWTH OPPORTUNITY
    38. 38. 1.3 DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBALISATION • ENCOURAGING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION • PROMOTING ECONOMIC GROWTH • ENCOURAGING CULTURAL INTERACTION OPPORTUNITY
    39. 39. 1.3 DIFFERENT PERCEPTIONS OF GLOBALISATION • ENCOURAGING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION • PROMOTING ECONOMIC GROWTH • ENCOURAGING CULTURAL INTERACTION • FACILITATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL NGOS OPPORTUNITY
    40. 40. THREAT
    41. 41. THREAT• UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PROBLEMS
    42. 42. THREAT• UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PROBLEMS• INCREASING INEQUALITY
    43. 43. THREAT• UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PROBLEMS• INCREASING INEQUALITY• THREATENING THE STABILITY OF GLOBAL ECONOMY
    44. 44. THREAT• UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PROBLEMS• INCREASING INEQUALITY• THREATENING THE STABILITY OF GLOBAL ECONOMY • REDUCING POWER OF INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES
    45. 45. THREAT• UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PROBLEMS• INCREASING INEQUALITY• THREATENING THE STABILITY OF GLOBAL ECONOMY • REDUCING POWER OF INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES • THREATENING WORLD PEACE
    46. 46. THREAT• UNEMPLOYMENT AND LABOUR PROBLEMS• INCREASING INEQUALITY• THREATENING THE STABILITY OF GLOBAL ECONOMY • REDUCING POWER OF INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES • THREATENING WORLD PEACE • REDUCING CULTURAL DIVERSITY
    47. 47. 2 FACTORS DRIVING GLOBALISATION
    48. 48. 2.1 ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION2.1 IS TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT AN IMPORTANT FACTOR DRIVING GLOBALISATION?
    49. 49. 2.1 ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION2.1 IS TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT AN IMPORTANT FACTOR DRIVING GLOBALISATION? • BEFORE THE FIRST WORLD WAR
    50. 50. 2.1 ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION2.1 IS TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT AN IMPORTANT FACTOR DRIVING GLOBALISATION? • BEFORE THE FIRST WORLD WAR ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION ENCOURAGED INTERNATIONAL TRADE
    51. 51. 2.1 ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION2.1 IS TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT AN IMPORTANT FACTOR DRIVING GLOBALISATION? • BEFORE THE FIRST WORLD WAR ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION ENCOURAGED INTERNATIONAL TRADE • AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR
    52. 52. 2.1 ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION2.1 IS TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT AN IMPORTANT FACTOR DRIVING GLOBALISATION? • BEFORE THE FIRST WORLD WAR ADVANCEMENT IN TRANSPORTATION ENCOURAGED INTERNATIONAL TRADE • AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR AIR AND SEA TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGIES IMPROVED, REDUCING TRANSPORTATION COST
    53. 53. TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT
    54. 54. TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT→ ENCOURAGES MERCHANDISE TRADE
    55. 55. TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT→ ENCOURAGES MERCHANDISE TRADE→ ENCOURAGES THE FLOW OF RESOURCES
    56. 56. TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT→ ENCOURAGES MERCHANDISE TRADE→ ENCOURAGES THE FLOW OF RESOURCES→ ALLOWS CORPORATIONS TO PRODUCE AND SELL PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT PLACES
    57. 57. TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT→ ENCOURAGES MERCHANDISE TRADE→ ENCOURAGES THE FLOW OF RESOURCES→ ALLOWS CORPORATIONS TO PRODUCE AND SELL PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT PLACES GLOBAL ECONOMY BECOME MORE INTEGRATED
    58. 58. IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND REDUCED COSTS
    59. 59. IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND REDUCED COSTS→ FAVOUR THE FLOW OF LABOUR
    60. 60. IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND REDUCED COSTS→ FAVOUR THE FLOW OF LABOUR→ ENABLE TOURISM TO PROSPER
    61. 61. IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND REDUCED COSTS→ FAVOUR THE FLOW OF LABOUR→ ENABLE TOURISM TO PROSPER→ ENCOURAGE CULTURAL INTERACTION
    62. 62. 2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 1. WHAT ROLES DO COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE MASS MEDIA PLAY IN DRIVING GLOBALISATION? 2. DOES COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FLATTEN THE WORLD?
    63. 63. 2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 1. WHAT ROLES DO COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE MASS MEDIA PLAY IN DRIVING GLOBALISATION? 2. DOES COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FLATTEN THE WORLD? COMMUNICATION TOOLS BECOME MORE COMMON
    64. 64. 2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 1. WHAT ROLES DO COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE MASS MEDIA PLAY IN DRIVING GLOBALISATION? 2. DOES COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FLATTEN THE WORLD? COMMUNICATION COSTS OF TOOLS BECOME COMMUNICATION MORE COMMON ARE DECREASING
    65. 65. 2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 1. WHAT ROLES DO COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND THE MASS MEDIA PLAY IN DRIVING GLOBALISATION? 2. DOES COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FLATTEN THE WORLD? COMMUNICATION COSTS OF TOOLS BECOME COMMUNICATION MORE COMMON ARE DECREASING PEOPLE COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER MORE FREQUENTLY
    66. 66. WITH COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGYMULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS CAN:
    67. 67. WITH COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGYMULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS CAN: ARRANGE PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
    68. 68. WITH COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGYMULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS CAN: ARRANGE PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES TRANSFER RESOURCES AND CAPITAL TO ANY PLACE AT ANY TIME
    69. 69. • THE INTERNET HAS CHANGED THE WAY INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED
    70. 70. • THE INTERNET HAS CHANGED THE WAY INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED PEOPLE CAN EASILY OBTAIN INFORMATION AND SEND PERSONAL MESSAGE
    71. 71. • THE INTERNET HAS CHANGED THE WAY INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED• THE INTERNET HAS CHANGED THE MODE OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PEOPLE CAN EASILY OBTAIN INFORMATION AND SEND PERSONAL MESSAGE
    72. 72. • THE INTERNET HAS CHANGED THE WAY INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED• THE INTERNET HAS CHANGED THE MODE OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PEOPLE CAN EASILY OBTAIN INFORMATION AND SEND PERSONAL MESSAGE PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE WORLD CAN COMMUNICATE AND EXCHANGE INFORMATION
    73. 73. 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASS MEDIA
    74. 74. 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASS MEDIA • TELEVISION BROADCAST, SATELLITE AND THE INTERNET ARE NOW COMMON
    75. 75. 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASS MEDIA • TELEVISION BROADCAST, SATELLITE AND THE INTERNET ARE NOW COMMON →! PEOPLE CAN RECEIVE MEDIA INFORMATION FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD
    76. 76. 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASS MEDIA • TELEVISION BROADCAST, SATELLITE AND THE INTERNET ARE NOW COMMON →! PEOPLE CAN RECEIVE MEDIA INFORMATION FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD →! PEOPLE CAN LEARN ABOUT OTHER LIFESTYLES AND CULTURES
    77. 77. 2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASS MEDIA • TELEVISION BROADCAST, SATELLITE AND THE INTERNET ARE NOW COMMON →! PEOPLE CAN RECEIVE MEDIA INFORMATION FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD →! PEOPLE CAN LEARN ABOUT OTHER LIFESTYLES AND CULTURES →! PEOPLE CAN LEARN ABOUT IMPORTANT EVENTS AROUND THE WORLD
    78. 78. • RADIO AND TELEVISION COMMERCIALS
    79. 79. • RADIO AND TELEVISION COMMERCIALS→! SPREAD OF CONSUMERISM
    80. 80. • RADIO AND TELEVISION COMMERCIALS→! SPREAD OF CONSUMERISM• MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS MARKET THEIR PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT PLACES
    81. 81. • RADIO AND TELEVISION COMMERCIALS→! SPREAD OF CONSUMERISM→! PEOPLE’S LIFESTYLES ARE BECOMING SIMILAR• MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS MARKET THEIR PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT PLACES
    82. 82. • RADIO AND TELEVISION COMMERCIALS→! SPREAD OF CONSUMERISM→! PEOPLE’S LIFESTYLES ARE BECOMING SIMILAR→! DEGREE OF CULTURAL INTEGRATION IS INCREASING• MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS MARKET THEIR PRODUCTS IN DIFFERENT PLACES
    83. 83. 2.4 EMERGENCE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS
    84. 84. 2.4 EMERGENCE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS
    85. 85. 2.4 EMERGENCE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS• FORM A GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORK
    86. 86. 2.4 EMERGENCE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS• FORM A GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORK• FORM SALES NETWORKS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
    87. 87. 2.4 EMERGENCE OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS• FORM A GLOBAL PRODUCTION NETWORK• FORM SALES NETWORKS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD →! DIFFERENT ECONOMIES BECOME MORE INTERDEPENDENT
    88. 88. • MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS INVEST IN DIFFERENT PLACES
    89. 89. • MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS INVEST IN DIFFERENT PLACES  GLOBALISATION EXTENDS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRY
    90. 90. • MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS INVEST IN DIFFERENT PLACES  GLOBALISATION EXTENDS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRY  CONCEPTS AND CULTURES OF THE FREE ECONOMY AND MARKET MECHANISM ARE SPREAD TO THESE COUNTRIES
    91. 91. 2.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS 1. HOW DO THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONTRIBUTE TO GLOBALISATION? 2. DO INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS DRIVE GLOBALISATION?
    92. 92. 2.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONSINTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS 1. HOW DO THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONTRIBUTE TO GLOBALISATION? 2. DO INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS DRIVE GLOBALISATION?
    93. 93. 2.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONSINTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS • WORLD BANK 1. HOW DO THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONTRIBUTE TO GLOBALISATION? 2. DO INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS DRIVE GLOBALISATION?
    94. 94. 2.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONSINTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS • WORLD BANK • INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) 1. HOW DO THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONTRIBUTE TO GLOBALISATION? 2. DO INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS DRIVE GLOBALISATION?
    95. 95. 2.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONSINTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS • WORLD BANK • INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) • WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO) 1. HOW DO THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONTRIBUTE TO GLOBALISATION? 2. DO INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS DRIVE GLOBALISATION?
    96. 96. 2.5 ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONSINTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS • WORLD BANK • INTERNATIONAL MONETARY SUPPORT TRADE FUND (IMF) LIBERALISATION • WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO) 1. HOW DO THE WORLD BANK AND INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND CONTRIBUTE TO GLOBALISATION? 2. DO INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS DRIVE GLOBALISATION?
    97. 97. • TRADE LIBERALISATION
    98. 98. • TRADE LIBERALISATION→ COUNTRIES NEED TO REDUCE IMPORT AND EXPORT RESTRICTIONS
    99. 99. • TRADE LIBERALISATION• THE WORLD BANK, IMF AND WTO GUIDE COUNTRIES TO SET UP POLICIES THAT ARE IN LINE WITH TRADE LIBERALISATION → COUNTRIES NEED TO REDUCE IMPORT AND EXPORT RESTRICTIONS
    100. 100. • TRADE LIBERALISATION• THE WORLD BANK, IMF AND WTO GUIDE COUNTRIES TO SET UP POLICIES THAT ARE IN LINE WITH TRADE LIBERALISATION → COUNTRIES NEED TO REDUCE IMPORT AND EXPORT RESTRICTIONS• THE SCALE OF THE U.N. AND ITS RELATED SPECIALISED ORGANISATIONS HAS BEEN INCREASING
    101. 101. INTERNATIONAL NGOS
    102. 102. INTERNATIONAL NGOS• RAISE INTERNATIONAL CONCERN TOWARDS GLOBAL ISSUE
    103. 103. INTERNATIONAL NGOS• RAISE INTERNATIONAL CONCERN TOWARDS GLOBAL ISSUE• ALLOW PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES TO BE AWARE OF THEIR ROLE AS GLOBAL CITIZENS
    104. 104. 2.6 EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL ISSUES
    105. 105. 2.6 EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL ISSUES• GLOBAL ISSUES ARE MAINLY THE RESULT OF THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CIVILISATIONS
    106. 106. 2.6 EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL ISSUES• GLOBAL ISSUES ARE MAINLY THE RESULT OF THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CIVILISATIONS  E.G. POLLUTION, ENERGY SHORTAGES
    107. 107. 2.6 EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL ISSUES• GLOBAL ISSUES ARE MAINLY THE RESULT OF THE NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CIVILISATIONS  E.G. POLLUTION, ENERGY SHORTAGES• THESE ISSUES CAN ONLY BE SOLVED THROUGH INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND NEGOTIATIONS
    108. 108. END

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