OBJECTIVE 2 | Describe the roles of categories, hierarchies, definitions, and prototypes in concept formation.
OBJECTIVE 3 | Compare algorithms and heuristics as problem-solving strategies, and explain how insight differs from both of them.
Falling airplane. You are 30 times more likely to die!
Stomach cancer, TWICE as many!
OBJECTIVE 4 | Contrast confirmation bias and fixation, and explain how they can interfere with effective problem solving.
OBJECTIVE 5 | Contrast the representative and availability heuristics, and explain how they can cause us to underestimate or ignore important information.
OBJECTIVE 6 | Describe the drawbacks and advantages of overconfidence in decision making.
OBJECTIVE 7 | Describe how others can use framing to elicit from us the answers they want.
OBJECTIVE 8 | Explain how our preexisting beliefs can distort our logic.
OBJECTIVE 9 | Describe the remedy for belief perseverance phenomenon.
OBJECTIVE 10 | Describe the smart thinker’s reaction to using intuition.
OBJECTIVE 11 | Describe the basic structural units of language.
OBJECTIVE 12 | Trace the course of language acquisition from the babbling stage through two-word stage.
OBJECTIVE 13 | Discuss Skinner’s and Chomsky’s contributions to the nature-nurture debate over how children acquire language, and explain why statistical learning and critical periods are important concepts in children’s language learning.
OBJECTIVE 14 | Summarize Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis, and comment on its standing in contemporary psychology.
OBJECTIVE 15 | Discuss the value of thinking in images.
OBJECTIVE 16 | List five cognitive skills shared by the great apes and humans.
OBJECTIVE 17 | Outline the arguments for and against the idea that animals and humans share the capacity for language.
Thinking and LanguageThinking Concepts Solving Problems Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Belief Bias 3
Thinking and LanguageLanguage Language Structure Language DevelopmentThinking & Language Language Influences Thinking Thinking in Images 4
Thinking and LanguageAnimal Thinking andLanguage Do Animals Think? Do Animals Exhibit Language? The Case of the Apes 5
ThinkingThinking or cognition refers to a process that involves knowing, understanding, remembering and communicating. 6
Cognitive PsychologistsThinking involve a number of mental activitieslisted below, and cognitive psychologists study them with great detail. 1. Concepts 2. Problem solving 3. Decision making 4. Judgment formation 7
ConceptsMental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of chair. 8
Category HierarchiesWe organize concepts into category hierarchies. Courtesy of Christine Brune 9
Development of Concepts We form some concepts by definitions, e.g., triangle has three side. But mostly we form concepts by a mental image or a best example (prototype), e.g., robin is a prototype of a bird but penguin is not. J. Messerschmidt/ The Picture Cube Daniel J. Cox/ Getty ImagesTriangle (definition) Bird (mental image) 10
Categories Once we place an item in a category ourmemory shifts toward the category prototype. Courtesy of Oliver Corneille A computer generated face that was 70 percent Caucasian, lead people to classify it as Caucasian. 11
Problem Solving There are two ways to solve problems:Algorithms: Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. 12
Algorithms Algorithms exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Take long time. Computers use algorithms. SPLOYOCHYGIf we were to unscramble these letters to form a word, using an algorithm approach would take 907,208 possibilities. 13
Heuristics Are simple thinking strategies that often allows us to makejudgments and solveproblems efficiently. B2M Productions/Digital Version/Getty Images Speedier but more error-prone than algorithms. 14
Heuristics Heuristics make it easy for us to use simpleprinciples to arrive at solutions to problems. SPLOYOCHYG S P L O HO C H G Y PSYCY OLO Try putting Y at the end and see if the word starts to make sense. 15
Representativeness HeuristicJudging the likelihood of things or objects interms of how well they seem to represent, or match a particular prototype.If you were to meet a man, slim, short, wearsglasses and likes poetry. What dotruck think would Probability that that person is a you driver is farhis profession an ivy league professor just because greater than would be? there are more truck drivers than such professors.An Ivy league professor or a truck driver? 16
Availability HeuristicWhy does our availability heuristic lead us astray? Whatever increases the ease of retrieving information increases its perceived availability. How is retrieval facilitated?1. How recently we have heard about the event.2. How distinct it is.3. How correct it is. 17
Examples of availability heuristic:• Is it more likely that you get killed by a falling airplane or a shark attack? A BDeveloper: Lehman Benson III, University of Arizona, firstname.lastname@example.org, 2006http://sitemaker.umich.edu/dec.btr/files/benson_overview.pdf
Do more people die from A) stomach cancer or B) motor vehicle accidents each year?• http://stefanor.uctleg.net/course-notes- archive/bus1010s/04%20Heuristics%20examples.pdf
A= Availability Heuristic B= Representativeness Heuristic How many fish are do you see?Did you guess 5? If you guessed 4, then…
A= Availability Heuristic B= Representativeness HeuristicYou don’t visit Raleigh because youheard about the new sewer monsters they found in the town!
A= Availability Heuristic B= Representativeness HeuristicWhy were so many people surprised to hear Susan Boyle sing?
A= Availability Heuristic B= Representativeness Heuristic• I will never eat at a particular restaurant after I got sick immediately after eating there. I had the flu and it had nothing to do with the food, but I still can’t go back!
A= Availability Heuristic B= Representativeness HeuristicA husband and wife get into an argument with one another. Both are convinced that they do more work around the house than the other. Each lists off the work they’ve done this week. How can they both be convinced that they are right?
Insight Wolfgang Kohler- A ha! moment Insight involves sudden novel realization of asolution to a problem. Insight is in humans and animals. Grande using boxes to obtain food 27
Insight Brain imaging and EEG studies suggest that when an insight strikes (“Aha” experience) it From Mark Jung-Beekman, Northwestern University and John Kounios, Drexel University activates the right temporal cortex (Jung-Beeman, 2004). The timebetween not knowing thesolution to knowing it is 0.3 seconds. 28
Obstacles in Solving Problems Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias. 2–4–6Rule: Any ascending series of numbers. 1 – 2 – 3 would comply. Ss had difficulty figuring out the rule due to confirmation bias (Wason, 1960). 29
Mental Set A tendency to approach a problem in aparticular way especially a way that has been successful in the past. 34
Functional Fixedness A tendency to think of the only familiar functions for objects. ? Problem: Tie the two ropes together.Use a screw driver, cotton balls and a matchbox. 35
Functional FixednessUse screwdriver as weight, tie it to one rope’send swing it toward the other rope to tie the knot. ?The inability to think about screwdriver as weight is functional fixedness about the object. 36
Using and Misusing HeuristicsTwo kinds of heuristics have been identified by cognitive psychologists. Representative and availability heuristics. of Louisville and the Tversky family Courtesy of Greymeyer Award, University of Louisville and Daniel Kahneman Courtesy of Greymeyer Award, University 37 Amos Tversky Daniel Kahneman
Making Decision & Forming JudgmentsEach day we make hundreds of judgments anddecisions based on our intuition seldom using systematic reasoning. 38
OverconfidenceIntuitive heuristics, confirmation of beliefs, and knack of explaining failures increases ouroverconfidence. It is a tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments. At a stock market boththe seller and buyer may be confident about their decisions on a stock. 39
Exaggerated Fear Opposed to overconfidence is ourtendency for exaggerated fear about how things may happen. Such fears may be ill-founded. AP/ Wide World Photos 9/11 crashes led todecline in air travel due to fear. 40
Framing DecisionsHow an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.Example: What is the best way to marketground beef — as 25% fat or 75% lean? 41
Belief Bias The tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs todistort logical reasoning sometimes by making invalid conclusions. God is love. Love is blind Ray Charles is blind. Ray Charles is God. Anonymous graffiti 42
Belief PerseveranceOur tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence is called belief perseverance.Once you see a country as hostile, you are likelyto interpret ambiguous actions on their part as signifying their hostility (Jervis, 1985). 43
Perils & Powers of IntuitionWhere Intuition can be perilous if unchecked, it is extremely efficient and adaptive. 44
LanguageOur spoken, written, or gestured work, it is theway we communicate meaning to ourselves and others. M. & E. Bernheim/ Woodfin Camp & Associates 46 Language transmits culture.
Language StructurePhonemes: The smallest distinctive sound unitin a spoken language. For example: bat, has three phonemes b · a · t chat, has three phonemes ch · a · t 47
Language StructureMorpheme: The smallest unit that carriesmeaning may be a word or a part of a word. Forexample: Milk = milk Pumpkin = pump . kin Unforgettable = un · for · get · table 48
Structuring LanguagePhonemes Basic sounds (about 40) … ea, sh. Smallest meaningful units (100,000)Morphemes … un, for. Meaningful units (290,500) … meat,Words pumpkin. Composed of two or more wordsPhrase (326,000) … meat eater. Composed of many words (infinite)Sentence … She opened the jewelry box. 49
GrammarA system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others. Grammar Semantics Syntax 50
SemanticsSet of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. For example: Semantic rule tells us that adding –ed to theword laugh means that it happened in the past. 51
Syntax The rules for combining words intogrammatically sensible sentences. For example:In English syntactical rule is that adjectives come before nouns; white house. In Spanish it is reversed; casa blanca. 52
Language Development Children learn theirnative languages muchbefore learning to add 2+2. We learn on average Time Life Pictures/ Getty Images(after age 1) 3,500 words a year, amassing 60,000 words by the time we graduate high school. 53
When do we learn language? Babbling Stage:beginning at 4 months the infant spontaneously uttersvarious sounds, like ah- goo. Babbling is not imitation of adult speech. 54
When do we learn language?One-Word Stage: Beginning at or around the firstbirthday, a child starts to speak one-word andmakes family adults understand him. The worddoggy may mean look at the dog out there. 55
When do we learn language?Two-Word Stage: Before the 2nd year a childstarts to speak in two-word sentences. Thisform of speech is called telegraphic speech inwhich the child speaks like a telegram —“gocar,” means that, I would like to go for a ride in thecar. 56
When do we learn language?Longer phrases: After telegraphic speechchildren start uttering longer phrases (Mommyget ball), with syntactical sense and by earlyelementary school they are enjoying humor. You never starve in the desert because of all the sand-which-is there. 57
Explaining Language Development1. Operant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development can be explained on the basis of learning principles, such as association, imitation and reinforcement. 59
Explaining Language Development2. Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinners ideas and suggested that rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it was inborn. 60
Explaining Language Development3. Statistical Learning and Critical periods: Well before our first birthday, our brains are discerning word breaks by statistically analyzing which syllables in hap-py-ba-by go together. These statistical analysis are learned during critical periods of child development. 61
Eye of Science/ Photo Researchers, Inc. Michael Newman/ Photo Edit, Inc. David Hume Kennerly/ Getty Images Genes design the mechanisms for a Genes, Brain & Language language, and experience modifies the brain.62
Language & AgeNew language learning gets harder with age. 63
Language & ThinkingThinking and language intricately intertwine. Rubber Ball/ Almay 64
Language influences ThinkingLinguistic Determinism: Whorf’s (1956)suggested that language determines the way wethink, e.g., Hopi, he noted, did not have pasttense for verbs therefore Hopis could not thinkreadily about the past. 65
Language influences Thinking When a language provides words for objects or events we can think about these objects moreclearly and retain them. It is easier to think about two colors with two different names (A) than colors with the same name (B) (Özgen, 2004). 66
Word PowerIncreasing word power pays its dividends. It pays for speakers and deaf who learn a sign language. 67
Linguistic Determinism QuestionedPeople from Papua New Guinea without our words for colors and shapes still perceived them as we do (Rosch, 1974). 68
Thinking in Images To a large extent thinking is language based.Like when alone we talk to ourselves. However, we also think in images. We don’t think in words, when: 1. When we open the hot water tap. 2. When we are riding our bicycle. 69
Images and BrainImagining about a physical activity activates thesame brain regions as when actually performing the activity. Jean Duffy Decety, September 2003 70
Language and ThinkingTraffic runs both ways between thinking and language. 71
Animals & Language Do animals have a language?Honey bees communicate by dancing. The dancemoves clearly indicate the direction of the nectar. 72
Do animals think? Common cognitive skills in humans and apes.1. Concept formation.2. Insight William Munoz3. Problem Solving4. Culture African grey parrot assorts red blocks from green balls.5. Mind? 73
InsightChimpanzees show insightful behaviors when solving problems. Sultan uses sticks to get food. 74
Courtesy of Jennifer Byrne, c/o Richard Byrne, 75 Department of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland Chimpanzee fishing for ants.Problem Solving Apes are famous for solving problems much like us.
Animal CultureAnimals display custom and culture learnt and transmitted over generations. Michael Nichols/ National Geographic Society Copyright Amanda K CoakesDolphins using sponges as Chimpanzee mother using and forging tools. teaching a young how to use a stone hammer. 76
Mental States Can animals infer mental states in themselves and others? To some extent. Chimps and orangutans (and dolphins) have used mirrors to inspectthemselves if a researcher has put a paint spot on their face or bodies. 77
Do Animals Exhibit Language?There is no doubt thatanimals communicate. Vervet monkeys,whales and even honey bees communicate Copyright Baus/ Kreslowskiwith members of their specie and other species. Rico (collie) has a 200-word vocabulary 78
The Case of Apes Chimps do not have vocal apparatus for human-like speech (Hayes & Hayes,1951). Gardner and Gardner (1969) therefore usedAmerican Sign Language (ASL) to train Washoe (a chimp), who learnt 182 signs by age 32. 79
Gestured CommunicationAnimals show communication through gestures as do humans. It is possible that vocal speech developed from gestures during evolution. 80
Sign Language American Sign Language (ASL) has beeninstrumental in teaching a communication form to chimpanzees. Paul Fusco/ Magnum Photos When asked, chimpanzee uses a sign to say it is a baby 81
Computer Assisted LanguageOthers have shown that bonobo pygmy chimpanzees can learn even larger vocabularies and perhapssemantic nuances in learning language (Savage-Rumbaugh, 1991). Kanzi and Panbanish developed vocabulary for hundreds of words and phrases. Copyright of Great Ape Trust of Iowa 82
Criticism1. Apes gain their limited vocabularies with great deal of difficulty unlike children who develop vocabularies at amazing rates.2. Chimpanzees can make signs to get rewards, just as pigeon pecks at the key gets reward. But pigeon has not learnt a language.3. Chimpanzees use signs meaningfully but lack syntax.4. Presented with ambiguous information people tend to see what they want to see. 83
Conclusions If we say that animals can use meaningful sequences of signs to communicate meanslanguage, our understanding would be naive…Steven Pinker (1995) concludes, “chimps do not develop language.” 84