Diagrammatic representation of the translocation patterns of coarse (inhalable), inhalable fine(thoracic ) and ultrafine/n anosized(respirable) respirable particles in the human respiratory system.
Electron micrograph of a fine mode particle collected by an impactor from air outside an engineering laboratory at the UCLA. A halo surrounds residues of what areDangerous dirt. probably inorganic salts and polar organic compounds dissolved in the original aqueous droplet. Sootlike particles are also present.
Aggregates of ultrafine particles collected on the last stage of an eight-stage impactor. These are soot particles emitted from diesel engine sources such as buses. More volatile particles may have evaporatedDangerous dirt. in the electron microscope.
(A)Particle deposition within the regions of the lung (tracheobronchi and alveolar) with respect to particlesize. (B) Schematic of course particle (green) preferential deposition within the upper regions of the green pulmonary system. (C) Schematic of fine and ultrafine ⁄ nanoparticle (red) deposition.These smaller particles are found throughout the lung, but preferentially deposit within the alveolar region.
Annual National PM2.5 air quality trends, 2001-2008 (annual average concentration and 98th percentile of 24‑ hour concentration in μg/m3). 13 11 Annual National PM2.5 17%
From 1970 to 2008 particulate matter has decreased by over 50 % in ambient air. Canada 1984-2008 PM 2.5 54 % 2008PM2.5 8.13 10
Results:• A total of 37,801, 75,960, and 11,580 children were studied in 1987, 1994 and 2002, respectively. 2002• The prevalence of allergic diseases had increased in the past two decades. Results indicate that the prevalence of bronchial asthma had risen, from 2.19 % in 1987 , and 3.54% in 1994, to 6.99 % in 2002 .
• The overall cumulative and 12-month preva-lence of wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema in the younger children group were 7.4 % , 43.0%, and 7.2%, respectively.• The results indicated that the prevalence of “asthma ever” and “wheezing ever” was 14.6% and 15.2%.
997,729 enrolees from the NHI register from 2000 to 2007 . 8-year prevalences of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma were 6.7%, 26.3% and 11.9 %, respectively.Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis, Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Taiwan: A National Study 2000 to 2007 Chian-Yaw Hwang1,2, Yi-Ju Chen2,3, Ming-Wei Lin4,5, Tzeng-Ji Chen6,7, Szu-Ying Chu1,2, Chih-Chiang Chen1,2, Ding-Dar Lee1,2, Yun-Ting Chang1,2,8, Wen-Jen Wang 1,2 and Han-Nan Liu1,2,9Departments of 1Dermatology, 4Medical Research and Education and 6Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 2Department of Dermatology,5Institute of Public Health, 7Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Departments of Dermatology, 9National Defense Medical Center, Taipei,3Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, and 8National Yang Ming University Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan Acta Derm Venereol 2010; 90: 589–594
Median Age in 9 Countries:2008, 2020 , and 2040 (In years) 2020 2040 Taiwan 1974 21 26 30 37 1987 1996 2009 43 歲 53 Taiwan 2060 60 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, accessed on January 17, 2008.
We estimate that these additional local controls would yield benefits well in excess of costs , by a ratio of at least 30 to 1.• Based on the air quality analysis in this RIA, the EPA projects that nearly all counties with PM2.5 monitors in the U.S. would meet an annual standard of 12 μg/m3 by 2020 without additional federal, state, or local PM control programs.• This demonstrates the substantial progress that the U.S. has made in reducing air pollution emissions over the last several decades.• Regulations such as the EPA’s recent Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR), and other federal programs such as diesel standards will provide substantial improvements in regional concentrations of PM2.5.• Our analysis shows a few areas would still need additional emissions reductions to address local sources of air pollution, including ports and uncontrolled industrial emissions.• For this reason, we have designed the RIA analysis to focus on local controls in these few areas. We estimate that these additional local controls would yield benefits well in excess of costs, by a ratio of at least 30 to 1.