Drop-Out Rates Among English Language Learners<br />Why are Graduation Rates so Low?<br />Taylor Colonna<br />
After viewing this PowerPoint, students will be able to…<br />Understand what factors contribute to the high drop-out rate...
Drop-Out Rates<br />Many states and school districts are not tracking the graduation rates of ELLs; and some are not accur...
Why are they so low?<br />Poor academic achievement– most  often seen in the area of reading (Bowman-Perrott, Herrera, & M...
More Contributing Factors…<br />ELLs are not given the services they need <br />The NY State Education Dept. failed to pro...
There’s More…<br />High-stakes testing:  disaggregation by race when it comes to standardized test scores does not increas...
What can Educators do?<br />Solution to low academic achievement: provide early and intensive reading interventions, which...
Improving Communication<br />To improve communication and connectedness:<br />School policies adapted to serve the needs o...
More Solutions…<br />To increase the support of ELLs and their teachers, school districts must:<br />Provide intensive Eng...
Decreasing the Drop-Out Rate<br />To increase test-performance, schools must become more culturally competent.<br />King (...
ELL Charter Schools<br />ELL charter schools see good academic growth and dramatic decreases in drop out rates.<br />A Cal...
The BIG IDEAS of ELL Drop-Out Rates<br />Since the ELL population is expanding so rapidly, it is important for school offi...
References<br />Bowman-Perrott, L. J., Herrera, S., & Murry, K. (2010).  Reading difficulties and grade retention: What’s ...
McNeil, L. M., Coppola, E., Radigan, J., & Heilig, J. V. (2008).  Avoidable losses: High-stakes accountability and the dro...
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Ell drop outs

  1. 1. Drop-Out Rates Among English Language Learners<br />Why are Graduation Rates so Low?<br />Taylor Colonna<br />
  2. 2. After viewing this PowerPoint, students will be able to…<br />Understand what factors contribute to the high drop-out rate of English Language Learners (ELLs)<br />Take into consideration what research suggests should be done in order to decrease the drop-out rate among this population of students.<br />
  3. 3. Drop-Out Rates<br />Many states and school districts are not tracking the graduation rates of ELLs; and some are not accurately reporting their numbers (Zehr, 2009).<br />Out of a total of 50 Virginia migrant students, only 11 received a high school diploma (Perritt, 2001).<br />In another study, more than 60% of African American and Latino students they followed did not graduate (McNeil, Coppola, Radigan, & Heilig, 2008).<br />
  4. 4. Why are they so low?<br />Poor academic achievement– most often seen in the area of reading (Bowman-Perrott, Herrera, & Murry, 2010)<br />Lack of communication: deep “disconnects” between schools, students’ families, and communities<br />The educational system was designed for the mainstream, middle-class student, and policies have not been properly adapted (Housman & Martinez, 2002).<br />Teachers sometimes found it difficult to communicate with immigrant parents (Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, 2001).<br />
  5. 5. More Contributing Factors…<br />ELLs are not given the services they need <br />The NY State Education Dept. failed to provide adequate services in agreement with established laws for ELLs: <br />Required English classes; trained & certified ESL and bilingual teachers; lack of extended day, weekend, and year-round programs (Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, 2002).<br />Lack of teacher support services <br />Proper placement of students into classrooms was not timely<br />Not given appropriate classroom materials and supplies <br />Not provided with proper professional development (Robert Clark Sterling Clark Foundation, 2001)<br />
  6. 6. There’s More…<br />High-stakes testing: disaggregation by race when it comes to standardized test scores does not increase fairness.<br />Instead, ELLs are pushed out of schools; and if they drop-out, schools show “measureable improvement” (McNeil, Coppola, Radigan, & Heilig, 2008).<br />Cultural Implications- teachers have low expectations, along with ELLs themselves (King, 2007).<br />Interrupted education due to migration, lack of education facilities, and economic circumstances.<br />Difficult to attend school, learn at grade level, accumulate credits, and meet graduation requirements (DeCapua, Smathers, & Tang, 2007; Green, 2003; Perritt, 2001)<br />
  7. 7. What can Educators do?<br />Solution to low academic achievement: provide early and intensive reading interventions, which include:<br />Vocabulary instruction, error correction, peer and cooperative learning groupings (Bowman-Perrott, Herrera, & Murry, 2010).<br />Pull-out sessions with tutors and small group instruction during class reading periods (Slavin & Madden, 1995).<br />
  8. 8. Improving Communication<br />To improve communication and connectedness:<br />School policies adapted to serve the needs of a diverse population of students.<br />Schools’ relationships with families and communities must be more responsive, collaborative, and student-centered (Housman & Martinez, 2002).<br />Provide a rigorous, culturally, and socially relevant curriculum<br />Provide resources needed to create a linguistically and diverse environment<br />Make all levels of the system accountable for student success<br />Establish a collaborative partnership for schools and families<br />
  9. 9. More Solutions…<br />To increase the support of ELLs and their teachers, school districts must:<br />Provide intensive English language instruction<br />Provide an extended school day and year<br />Provide professional development for bilingual/ESL teachers<br />Encourage certified teachers to teach ELLs<br />Expand bilingual and ESL teacher recruitment efforts<br />Communicate effectively with parents of ELLs – schools may need interpreters and translation services (Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, 2001; 2002).<br />
  10. 10. Decreasing the Drop-Out Rate<br />To increase test-performance, schools must become more culturally competent.<br />King (2007) proposes 3 roles for school leaders:<br />Goalsetter – assign the most at-risk students to the most creative and successful teachers<br />Instructional leader – individualize instruction based on test scores; identifies strengths and weaknesses<br />Culturally competent leader – eliminate achievement stereotypes in administration and teachers<br />
  11. 11. ELL Charter Schools<br />ELL charter schools see good academic growth and dramatic decreases in drop out rates.<br />A California charter school saw a 97% graduation rate. <br />All graduates attended college, and 62% of them were admitted to a four-year institution<br />What they do differently:<br />Driven by data – identify what’s working and what is not<br />Parent coordinators keep parents engaged<br />High teacher quality and administrative support<br />Focuses on either college or career preparation<br />Dessoff, A. (2010). English language learner charter schools. District Administration, 46(2), 32-38.<br />
  12. 12. The BIG IDEAS of ELL Drop-Out Rates<br />Since the ELL population is expanding so rapidly, it is important for school officials to pay close attention to their academic progress and graduation rates.<br />It is evident that with proper support, ELLs can achieve academically, have a higher chance of graduating, and even attend college.<br />Educators must keep in mind the diversity of their students and provide more unique instruction when possible.<br />
  13. 13. References<br />Bowman-Perrott, L. J., Herrera, S., & Murry, K. (2010). Reading difficulties and grade retention: What’s the connection for English language learners? Reading & Writing Quarterly, 26(1), 91-107.<br />Dessoff, A. (2010). English language learner charter schools. District Administration, 46(2), 32-38.<br />DeCapua, A., Smathers, W., & Tang, L. F. (2007). Schooling Interrupted: Schools can help English language learners who have experienced sizeable gaps in their formal education. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 40-46.<br />Green, P. E. (2003). The undocumented: Educating the children of migrant workers in America. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(1), 51-71.<br />Housman, N. G., & Martinez, M. R. (2002). Preventing school dropout and ensuring success for English language learners and native American students. (Report No. ED-99-CO-0137). Washington, D.C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED466343)<br />King, N. J. (2007). Exit strategies: Cultural implications for graduation tests. Principal Leadership, 8(1), 42-47.<br />
  14. 14. McNeil, L. M., Coppola, E., Radigan, J., & Heilig, J. V. (2008). Avoidable losses: High-stakes accountability and the dropout crisis. Education Poicy Analysis Archives,16(3), 1-48.<br />Perritt, D. C. (2001). The impact of school and contextual factors on the graduation rates of Virginia migrant students. (Doctoral dissertation, College of William and Mary, 2001).<br />Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, Inc. (2001, February). Report from the front lines: What’s needed to make New York’s ESL and bilingual programs succeed. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED466343)<br />Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, Inc. (2002, June). Creating a formula for success: Why English language learner students are dropping out of school, and how to increase graduation rates. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED467109)<br />Slavin, R. E., & Madden, N. A. (1995). Effects of success for all on the achievement of English language learners. (Report No. R117D40005). Philadelphia, PA: Pew Charitable Trusts. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED388050)<br />Zehr, M. A. (2009). Graduation rates on ELLs a mystery. Education Week, 29(3), 20-21.<br />

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