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The Schutzen Rifle

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This is a presentation delivered by John Anderson and Roger Hardy to a monthly meeting of the Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association (HBSA) of Great Britain in London, UK. Website: www.hbsa-uk.org

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The Schutzen Rifle

  1. 1. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 1 The Schützen Rifle John Anderson Roger Hardy
  2. 2. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 2 Contents •Introduction •German Tradition •German Rifles •American Tradition •American Rifles •Shooting the Schützen Rifle Today
  3. 3. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 3 Introduction
  4. 4. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 4 The German Tradition
  5. 5. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 5 In the beginning •Clubs recorded since 1139 •Schützengilde or Schützengesellschaft –1139 Gymnich –1190 Düsseldorf –1240 Aachen –1355 Hamburg –1393 Munich –1414 Danzig •Crossbows initially •Middle class - echo Guilds •Military Contribution •Competitions widespread by 16th CenturyZürich 1504 9
  6. 6. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 6 •16th Century woodcut •Note Jester’s costume •Pritschenmeister Traditions lasted many centuries 8
  7. 7. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 7 Over 300 years later see marker’s costumes 13
  8. 8. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 8 Oberbozen range 1689 Ceremonial Targets •Theme in own right •Chance factor •Schützenkönig •Shooting had social rôle as well as skill 1
  9. 9. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 9 Czech range 1754 Another century another target another range Several traditional courses of fire including popinjay but the core was standing (offhand or muzzle rest) at about 100 to 175 metres. 1
  10. 10. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 10 So as not to mislead •few targets pictured ranges •political and other themes were popular 1610 1629 1
  11. 11. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 11 Tradition endured to the bitter end Look at the date
  12. 12. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 12 Deutche Schützenbunde founded 1861 Political statement (German unification) NRA like defence aims Official Presence of every German state bar Austria 13
  13. 13. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 13 The Peoples’ Version •Competition at 200 and 400 feet •Offhand, Offhand with Diopter, Standing rest with any sight 9
  14. 14. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 14 And in Texas, 118 years later
  15. 15. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 15 Precision was also an issue 1
  16. 16. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 16 The German Rifle •Development •Early Breechloaders •Later Actions -Martinis -Swinging Blocks -Falling Blocks •Barrels •Stocks •Triggers •Sights •Ammunition •Accessories
  17. 17. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 17 Terminology •Schützen Rifles an American Term •Contemporary German usage Scheibenbüchsen •Modern German usage frequently Feuerstutzen
  18. 18. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 18 The Wheellock continued to a late date Bavarian circa 1740 Illustration 1840 13 18
  19. 19. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 19 By 1860 the form had distinctively followed function 19
  20. 20. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 20 Breechloaders first based on military actions Catalogue 1880
  21. 21. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 21 Werndl in Kufstein antique shop window Some of these early rifles on military actions were beautifully engraved. A Werndl engraved with an unusual dragon theme was in a 1996 Munich auction, another illustrated in Diana Armi June 1993, and a presentation Wänzl sold by Sotheby’s July 1995.
  22. 22. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 22 Actions •Mauser Mod. 71/88 continued for lower cost rifles •Martini remained very popular especially in South •Other military actions fell out of use •Feuerstutzen are known on over 50 actions •Vast majority underlever single shot: -Martini (Fallblock) -Swinging Block (Drehblock) -Falling Block (Vertikalblock) •Haenel Aydt serial numbers exceed 30,000 •Order of magnitude stimate (Tom Rowe) for civilian CF target rifles 1870 to 1939 -UK 5,000; US 15,000; German 150,000.
  23. 23. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 23 Bolt and Martini Actions 6
  24. 24. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 24 Martinis (Fallblock) Stiegele,Munich 1910 15 Daurer, Rosenheim
  25. 25. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 25 •True Martini actions are rare on German Rifles •Most have swinging Hammers & no Stockbolt (cf Keßler) •Majority had block removal to allow barrel cleaning from rear Most ‘Martinis’ are do not conform to Martini Patent 6
  26. 26. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 26 Swinging Blocks (Drehblock) 6
  27. 27. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 27 The Aydt Internal Extractor Haenel Original Aydt Carl Wilhelm Aydt (1847-1923) Aydt action patent 1885 15
  28. 28. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 28 The basis for Haenel’s target rifle (Aydt Employee for 36 years) •Simple •Cammed closing •Exposed breech for loading and cleaning •Haenel restarted manufacture in 1997 Aydt Mechanism •Attractive lines •Stiff barrel action assembly 15
  29. 29. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 29 The Tanner Distinctive because of lever lock 15
  30. 30. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 30 The Stecherspanner 6
  31. 31. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 31 Falling Block Actions (Vertikalblock) 6
  32. 32. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 32 System Meister •Several Büchel actions incl Konkurrenz & Stecherspanner •Meister was probably the most significant •Falling block with camming action •Prized by modern competitors •Manufacture restarted in 1998 15
  33. 33. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 33 System Ideal Unusual in that a stockbolt attaches the butt 6
  34. 34. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 34 Barrels •Not extreme in height or weight •Not barrel heavy balance •No dominant rifling profile •Henrys and ‘grooved lands’ popular •Stainless an option by 1930s Haenel Interrupted Thread Schmidt u Habermann Bayonet Takedowns were quite common to assist cleaning & portability
  35. 35. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 35 Buttstocks •Stock registers against bone, chin or jawbone 6
  36. 36. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 36 Set Triggers Competition rifles minimum 3-lever - some examples up to 6 lever 6
  37. 37. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 37 Sights
  38. 38. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 38 Cartridges •Many similar cases at first •9.5 x47R similar to 38-55 •8.15x46R similar to 32-40 •8.15 introduced circa 1893
  39. 39. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 39 Reloading Supplies Expense of shooting increased with the introduction of the breechloader. Reloading has never been made simpler: •de & recap •drop in powder pellet •finger seat bullet 22
  40. 40. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 40 Accessories Reloading tools •Berdan De&Recapper •Bullet seaters •Powder Measures •Sizing Dies Sighting Refinement •Multihole Eyepiece •Quick Change Blades •Correcting Lens Other •Cartridge Blocks •Sight Keys •Cleaning gear 20
  41. 41. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 41 Zimmerstutzen 6
  42. 42. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 42 Indoor Practice •4mm lead ball •Separate rimmed cap - no powder •About 25cm barrel at one or other end of ‘barrel’ •0.22lr became popular after WW1 15
  43. 43. 26-Aug-00 HBSA Lecture, The Schützen Rifle 43 Sources 1. Braun, Anne, Historical Targets,Royden, London 1983 (trans M.O.A.Stanton) 2. de Haas, Frank, Single Shot Rifles and Actions, Follet Publishing, Chicago 1969 3. de Haas, Frank, More Single Shot Rifles and Actions, Published by the author, Orange City 1989 4. Grant, James J. More Single Shot Rifles, William Morrow & Co., New York 1959 5. Harrison, E.H. The Romance of the Old Schuetzen, American Rifleman February 1972 6. Maretsch, Otto, Moderne Scheibenwaffen, Verlag Die Jagd GmbH, Berlin 1911 7. Mahrholdt, Richard, Waffenlexicon, F.C.Meyer Verlag, Munich 1952 8. Michaelis,Hans-Thorald, Schützengilden, Keysersche Verlagbuchhandlung GmbH, Munich 1985 9. Palmer, A.J. History of the International Shooting Union 1907-77, ISU, Wiesbaden 1978 10.Schlaugenhauf (ed) Bayerische Meisterschaft für Traditionswaffen, Bayerische Schützenzeitung, October 1998 11.Schulz, Walter, Gelungene Wiedergeburt, Feuerstutzen nach System Frohn 1906, Deutsche Waffen-Journal August 1996. 12.Schwartz & Dell, The Modern Schuetzen Rifle, Published by the authors, Christianberg 1999 13.Thompson, Jesse, The Schützen Rifle, Draft, to be published by Tom Rowe 14.Weigand, Elmar, The Development of Breechloading Target Rifles in Germany from 1885 to 1935, The Journal of the HBSA, Vol 2 No 4, May 1991 15.Wirnsberger,Gerhard, Scheibenbüchsen und ihre Werschlußeinrichtungen, Deutsche Waffen-Journal December 1993. Catalogues 16. August Stukenbrok, Waffen, Munition, Jagdartikel,circa 1910 17.Deutche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken, Munitions-Katalog 1904 18.Herman Historica Auction 1997 19.Jürgen H. Fricker, Historische Waffen,, Angebot 2 1996 20.Peterlongo, Tiroler Waffenfabrik, circa 1920 21.Pistor & Kost, Gewehrfabrik 1880 22.Pistor & Kost, Scheibenbüchsen, Zimmerstutzen, Munition und Zubehör, 1913

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