Before we begin, please make sure you are in audio mode byadjusting your volume.
Focus Groups 101  A self-learning module                           Emily Carley                            RSOT547
Module PurposeThis self-learning module is designed to:1. Introduce learners to focus groups as a   research methodology,2...
Learning objectives1. To describe focus groups, their purpose, and defining characteristics.2. To understand where focus gr...
What is a focus group?A FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION (FGD) is a groupdiscussion of approximately 6 - 12 persons guidedby a moder...
Morgan (1997) definition:“The explicit use of group interactions to produce dataand insights that would be less accessible ...
Purpose of a focus group discussionTo promote self-disclosure amongparticipantsTo obtain in-depth information on concepts,...
Characteristics              Krueger & Casey (2000)1. 5-10 participants2. Composed of participants who are similar to   ea...
What are we focused           on?Participants, chosen for their knowledge orexperience of the topicQuestions and probes pl...
Quick summary  group interview  homogeneous people  collect qualitative data
Focus groups as a    Research  Methodology
Focus groups are aqualitative data collection         strategy.
Why qualitative?Because focus groups combine two qualitativetechniquesFG = an interview (group) + observational approachIn...
Compared to Participant    Observation Allow access to processes qualitative researchers are interested in - interaction F...
Compared to Individual       InterviewsAllow access to content qualitative researchers are interested in - theattitudes an...
Compared to other  group interviewsE.g. Nominal and Delphi Groups neither involve group interactions typically involve tra...
QUESTION   Which qualitative researchmethod would you choose if you had unlimited resources (timeand money) and were inter...
QUESTIONIf the goal of the research is togain an in-depth understanding   of a person’s opinions and experiences, which qu...
Types of focus group      studies         anduses of focus groups
Focus Groups as:A self-contained research method wherethe focus group serves as the primarymeans of collecting qualitative...
When to use           focus groupsYou are looking for a range of ideas or feelings that people haveabout somethingYou are ...
When NOT to use        focus groupYou want people to come to consensusYou want to educate peopleYou don’t intend to use th...
Common uses1) Market research2) Decision making3) Planning and goal setting4) Policy making and testing5) Health related a...
Example 1As a monitoring and evaluation tool, focus groupscould be used:   in planning a programme to identify   stakehold...
Example 2    FGD could be used to focus   research and develop relevantresearch hypotheses by exploring in  greater depth ...
Example 3FGD could be used to formulate appropriate questions for morestructured, larger scale surveys.
How can OTs use focus groups?
1. When the identification of major themes is   important. For example,  occupational therapy practitioners may find them us...
OT research using           focus groupsLaliberte-Rudman et al (2000) explored quality of life issues from theperspectives...
Strengths    andWeaknesses
STRENGTHSflexible and versatileproduce concentrated amounts of datauseful for exploring attitudes and experiencesuseful for...
Weaknessescan be expensivecomplicated logistics may favour individual interviewsmay be dominated by 1 or 2 participantsdri...
Essential elementsto guarantee success
Key informants
Discussion Guide
Ambience
Moderator
Learning objectives1. To describe focus groups, their purpose, and defining characteristics.2. To understand where focus gr...
Additional ResourcesGreenbaum, T.L. (1998). The Handbook for Focus Group Research (2nd ed.). New York: LexingtonBooks.Krue...
That’s all folks!  Thank you!
ReferencesGreenbaum, T.L. (1998). The handbook for focus group research (2nd ed.). NewYork: Lexington Books.Hollis, V., Op...
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  • Focus groups-101.key

    1. 1. Before we begin, please make sure you are in audio mode byadjusting your volume.
    2. 2. Focus Groups 101 A self-learning module Emily Carley RSOT547
    3. 3. Module PurposeThis self-learning module is designed to:1. Introduce learners to focus groups as a research methodology,2.Explore the usefulness of focus groups to occupational therapy research,3.Provide resources to further students’ learning.
    4. 4. Learning objectives1. To describe focus groups, their purpose, and defining characteristics.2. To understand where focus groups are anchored as a research methodology.3. To compare and contrast focus groups with other qualitative research methods.4. To introduce different types of focus group studies, to describe how they differ, and to become familiar with common uses.5. To explore how the focus group method can be applied to occupational therapy research.6. To identify strengths and weaknesses of the focus group approach.7. To become familiar with the key elements to consider when planning and conducting focus groups.
    5. 5. What is a focus group?A FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION (FGD) is a groupdiscussion of approximately 6 - 12 persons guidedby a moderator, during which group members talkfreely and spontaneously about a certain topicdetermined by the researcher. The researcher’sinterest provides the focus and the groupinteraction produces data.
    6. 6. Morgan (1997) definition:“The explicit use of group interactions to produce dataand insights that would be less accessible without theinteraction found in a group.”Krueger & Casey (2000) definition:“A carefully planned series of discussions designed toobtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in apermissive, non-threatening environment.”
    7. 7. Purpose of a focus group discussionTo promote self-disclosure amongparticipantsTo obtain in-depth information on concepts,perceptions and ideas of a groupWhile primarily a group interview technique,the observations of interactions among groupmembers are considered a major part of thedata collection
    8. 8. Characteristics Krueger & Casey (2000)1. 5-10 participants2. Composed of participants who are similar to each other (e.g. homogeneous)3. Provide qualitative data4. Involve a focused discussion of a topic of interest that has been carefully planned in advance5. Session length is under two hours
    9. 9. What are we focused on?Participants, chosen for their knowledge orexperience of the topicQuestions and probes planned in advance to directattention to the topicDiscussion, or collective activity, planned toencourage spontaneous dynamic interaction betweenparticipants in order to explore ideasOutcomes, based on group responses and in somecases based on analyses of the actual interactions
    10. 10. Quick summary group interview homogeneous people collect qualitative data
    11. 11. Focus groups as a Research Methodology
    12. 12. Focus groups are aqualitative data collection strategy.
    13. 13. Why qualitative?Because focus groups combine two qualitativetechniquesFG = an interview (group) + observational approachInterview questions are open-ended and generatenarrative data
    14. 14. Compared to Participant Observation Allow access to processes qualitative researchers are interested in - interaction Focus group advantage: observe a concentrated amount of interaction in a limited time period Participant observation advantage: natural social setting and interaction, not limited to verbal behaviour and self-reported data
    15. 15. Compared to Individual InterviewsAllow access to content qualitative researchers are interested in - theattitudes and experiences of our informantsFocus group advantage: a) The ability to access and observe group interactions on a topic b) Group discussions provide direct evidence about similarities and differences in participants opinions and experiencesIndividual interview advantages: a) Interviewer has more control b) Volume of information each informant has time to share is greater
    16. 16. Compared to other group interviewsE.g. Nominal and Delphi Groups neither involve group interactions typically involve trained experts as opposed to lay people as participants
    17. 17. QUESTION Which qualitative researchmethod would you choose if you had unlimited resources (timeand money) and were interested in natural, observable interactions?
    18. 18. QUESTIONIf the goal of the research is togain an in-depth understanding of a person’s opinions and experiences, which qualitative research method would you choose and why?
    19. 19. Types of focus group studies anduses of focus groups
    20. 20. Focus Groups as:A self-contained research method wherethe focus group serves as the primarymeans of collecting qualitative dataA supplementary source of data in studiesthat rely on some other primary methodPart of multimethod studies that combinetwo or more means of data collection, and noone primary method determines the use ofothers.
    21. 21. When to use focus groupsYou are looking for a range of ideas or feelings that people haveabout somethingYou are trying to understand differences in perspectives betweengroups or categories of peopleYou wish to uncover factors that influence opinions, behaviours, ormotivationYou want ideas to emerge from the groupYou want to pilot test ideas, materials, plans, or policiesThe researcher needs information to design a large-scalequantitative studyThe researcher needs information to help shed light on quantitativedata already collected
    22. 22. When NOT to use focus groupYou want people to come to consensusYou want to educate peopleYou don’t intend to use the results but want to give the appearance oflisteningYou are asking for sensitive informationYou can’t ensure the confidentiality of sensitive informationYou need statistical projectionsThe environment is emotionally chargedOther methodologies can produce better quality informationOther methodologies can produce the same quality information moreeconomically
    23. 23. Common uses1) Market research2) Decision making3) Planning and goal setting4) Policy making and testing5) Health related applications: Investigation of health issues Programme development (e.g. needs assessment, asset analysis) Service evaluation Quality assurance monitoring Research (e.g. generation of hypotheses, interpretation of previously obtained quantitative results)
    24. 24. Example 1As a monitoring and evaluation tool, focus groupscould be used: in planning a programme to identify stakeholders’ needs, during a programme to examine service quality, and on completion of a programme to assess outcomes.
    25. 25. Example 2 FGD could be used to focus research and develop relevantresearch hypotheses by exploring in greater depth the problem to beinvestigated and its possible causes.
    26. 26. Example 3FGD could be used to formulate appropriate questions for morestructured, larger scale surveys.
    27. 27. How can OTs use focus groups?
    28. 28. 1. When the identification of major themes is important. For example, occupational therapy practitioners may find them useful for discerning the variety of client perceptions of a particular service or intervention, in order to make quality improvements occupational therapy educators may find them useful for understanding what factors have an impact on a course or programme of study for participating students service managers may find them useful for identifying the range of staff views on aspects of service delivery or for exploring staff needs and feelings2.To explain results obtained from other sources (e.g. survey, individual interview)
    29. 29. OT research using focus groupsLaliberte-Rudman et al (2000) explored quality of life issues from theperspectives of consumers with schizophrenia.Calnan et al (2000) used focus groups with service users, in order to adapta postal questionnaire for evaluating and monitoring the quality of care of alocal occupational therapy service.Yallop (2000) used data from a focus group to evaluate and direct futureprovision for people attending a new occupational therapy servicedeveloped for those living with HIV/AIDS.
    30. 30. Strengths andWeaknesses
    31. 31. STRENGTHSflexible and versatileproduce concentrated amounts of datauseful for exploring attitudes and experiencesuseful for generating ideasgroup dynamic stimulates conversation and reactionsallows probingmore efficient than conducting individual interviewsmore controlled than participant observation and lesscontrolled than individual interviewinguseful to complement other qualitative research methods
    32. 32. Weaknessescan be expensivecomplicated logistics may favour individual interviewsmay be dominated by 1 or 2 participantsdriven by the researchers interests; less naturalistic than participantobservationmoderator may be biased and may influence the group’s interactionsand datathe group itself may influence the data collected because oftendencies towards conformity or censoringparticipants may limit their responses to questions on topics of asensitive naturetopics may be limited by ethical issues such as invasion of privacyconcerns
    33. 33. Essential elementsto guarantee success
    34. 34. Key informants
    35. 35. Discussion Guide
    36. 36. Ambience
    37. 37. Moderator
    38. 38. Learning objectives1. To describe focus groups, their purpose, and defining characteristics.2. To understand where focus groups are anchored as a research methodology.3. To compare and contrast focus groups with other qualitative research methods.4. To introduce different types of focus group studies, to describe how they differ, and to become familiar with common uses.5. To explore how the focus group method can be applied to occupational therapy research.6. To identify strengths and weaknesses of the focus group approach.7. To become familiar with the key elements to consider when planning and conducting focus groups.
    39. 39. Additional ResourcesGreenbaum, T.L. (1998). The Handbook for Focus Group Research (2nd ed.). New York: LexingtonBooks.Krueger R.A. (1997). Moderating focus groups (Focus Group Kit). Thousand Oaks, CA: SagePublications.Krueger, R.A. (1998). Developing questions for focus groups (Focus Group Kit). Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage Publications.Krueger, R.A., & Casey, M.A. (2009). Focus Groups: A practical guide for applied research (4th ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Krueger, R.A., & King, J.A. (1998). Involving community members in focus groups (Focus Group Kit).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Morgan, D.L. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative research (2nd ed.) London: Sage Publications.Morgan, D.L. (1998). The focus group guidebook (Focus Group Kit). Thousand Oaks, CA: SagePublications.Morgan, D.L., Krueger, R.A., & King, J.A. (1998). Analysing and reporting focus group results (FocusGroup Kit). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Morgan, D.L., & Scannell, A.U. (1997). Planning focus groups (Focus Group Kit). Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage Publications.
    40. 40. That’s all folks! Thank you!
    41. 41. ReferencesGreenbaum, T.L. (1998). The handbook for focus group research (2nd ed.). NewYork: Lexington Books.Hollis, V., Openshaw, S., & Goble, R. (2002). Conducting focus groups: Purposeand practicalities. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65(1), 2-8.Krueger, R.A., & Casey, M.A. (2009). Focus groups: A practical guide for appliedresearch (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Morgan, D.L. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative research (2nd ed.) London: SagePublications.

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