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Reducing your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

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Reducing your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

  1. 1. Chapter Nine Enhancing Your Cardiovascular Health
  2. 2. Cardiovascular Disease <ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertaining to the heart ( cardio ) and the blood vessels ( vasculara ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimated Prevalence of Major Cardiovascular Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension 72,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary heart disease 15,800,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke 5,700,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Congestive heart failure 5,200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital heart disease 1,300,000 </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Vascular System <ul><li>Refers to the blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries carry blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterioles are smaller-diameter extensions of arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veins carry blood back into the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venules are smaller-diameter extensions of veins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest extensions of the vascular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of exchange of oxygen, food, and waste </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Deaths from Cardiovascular Disease
  5. 5. The Heart <ul><li>Four-chambered pump </li></ul><ul><li>Size of a fist </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates pressure to circulate blood throughout the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left center of the thorax (between lungs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal sends impulses from brain to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) measures the cardiac electrical functioning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Circulation through the Heart
  7. 7. Blood <ul><li>Functions of the circulatory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation of nutrients, oxygen, waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of water content of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffering of ph level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of blood loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection against toxins and microorganisms by circulating antibodies within the bloodstream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average person has 5 quarts of blood </li></ul>
  8. 8. Risk Factors That Cannot Be Changed <ul><li>Increasing age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people who die from heart disease are age 65 and older </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before age 55, men have a greater risk of heart disease than women do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After menopause, women’s rates of heart disease increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race/ethnicity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed <ul><li>Major Risk Factors: The “Big Six” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical inactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal blood cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity and overweight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributing Risk Factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual responses to stress </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed <ul><li>Tobacco smoke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases risk of heart attack, sudden cardiac death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quitting leads to a reduced risk of heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical inactivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise strengthens the heart muscle, maintains healthy blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages weight loss and retention of lean muscle mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderates stress </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed <ul><li>Abnormal Blood Cholesterol Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL, and HDL </li></ul>≥ 60 40-59 < 40 HDL cholesterol High (Desirable) Normal Low ≥ 160 130-159 < 130 LDL cholesterol ≥ 200 150-199 < 150 Triglycerides ≥ 240 200-239 < 200 Total cholesterol High Borderline-High Normal or Desirable
  12. 12. Risk Factors That Can Be Changed <ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damages heart and blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases risk of heart and blood vessel disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked to abnormal levels of cholesterol and other blood fats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obesity and overweight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal obesity is especially risky </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Metabolic Syndrome <ul><li>Risk factors often appear in a group </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated waist circumference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men: ≥ 40 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women: ≥ 35 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated triglycerides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>≥ 150 mg/dL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced HDL cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men: < 40 mg/dL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women: < 50 mg/dL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>≥ 130/85 mmHg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated fasting glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>≥ 100 mg/dL </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Forms of Cardiovascular Disease <ul><li>Coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatic heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Congestive heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases of the arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Arrhythmias </li></ul>
  15. 15. Coronary Heart Disease <ul><li>Damage to vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis: Buildup of plaque on the inner walls of arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Death of part of the heart muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Biomarkers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homocysteine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High sensitivity C-reactive protein </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Progression of Atherosclerosis
  17. 17. Cholesterol and Lipoproteins <ul><li>Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Bad” cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-density lipoprotein (HDL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Good” cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To improve cholesterol levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce saturated fat intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cholesterol intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce caloric intake to control weight </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Coronary Heart Disease <ul><li>Angina pectoris: Chest pain with stress or exertion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of a heart attack include chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, back or jaw pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency treatment: CPR and AEDs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrocardiogram, echocardiogram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary arteriography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PET, EBCT, and MRI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear medicine </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Coronary Heart Disease <ul><li>Surgical treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary artery bypass surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides alternative routes for blood to take around points of blockage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percutaneous coronary intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A slender balloon-tipped tube is used to flatten plaque and widen an artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart transplant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonsurgical treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications, including aspirin </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
  21. 21. Hypertension <ul><li>Symptoms: “Silent killer” (no symptoms) </li></ul><ul><li>Screening: Regular checks of resting blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: Heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure, eye damage </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul>90 or higher 80-89 Less than 80 Diastolic (bottom number) 140 or higher 120-139 Less than 120 Systolic (top number) Hypertension Prehypertension Normal Blood pressure (mm Hg)
  22. 22. Hypertension <ul><li>Prevention and treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderation in alcohol use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DASH eating plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt restriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Stroke <ul><li>Blockage of vessel to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Types of stroke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrovascular occlusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral hemorrhage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral aneurysm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warning sign: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerized axial tomography (CT) scan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clot dissolving drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell-rebuilding drugs </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Causes of Stroke
  25. 25. Congenital Heart Disease <ul><li>Abnormalities present at birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by environmental factors or illness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valve damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holes in the walls of the septum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessel transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underdevelopment of left side of the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery may be performed to repair malformations </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Rheumatic Heart Disease <ul><li>Chronic damage to the heart (especially the valves) </li></ul><ul><li>Result of streptococcal infection in the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complication of rheumatic fever </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Damage tends to occur in valves of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis: X-rays, echocardiogram </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Surgery </li></ul>
  27. 27. Congestive Heart Failure <ul><li>Inability of the heart to pump out all the blood that returns to it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid accumulates in veins, lungs, and kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caused by heart damage from other causes </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified daily activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of appropriate drugs </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Diseases of the Arteries <ul><li>Peripheral artery disease (PAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessel disease involving changes to the arteries and arterioles in the extremities </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-fat diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedentary occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood vessel surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified lifestyle </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. CVD Prevention <ul><li>Avoid tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a healthy diet </li></ul><ul><li>Be physically active </li></ul><ul><li>Control body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Manage stress </li></ul><ul><li>Get regular screenings </li></ul>
  30. 30. Chapter Nine: Enhancing Your Cardiovascular Health

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