Managing Stress

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  • Managing Stress

    1. 1. Chapter Three: Managing Stress
    2. 2. What Is Stress? <ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological and psychological state of disruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stressor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors or events, real or imagined, that elicit a state of stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eustress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress that enhances quality of life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress that diminishes quality of life </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Stress Response <ul><li>Physiological and psychological responses to positive or negative events that are disruptive, unexpected, or stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>Learned and conditioned habits adopted early in life </li></ul><ul><li>Basic human survival mechanism </li></ul>
    4. 4. Fight or Flight Response <ul><li>Physiological changes that prepare the body for confrontation or avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal glands </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Resolving Stress <ul><li>Adaptive Stress Response </li></ul>Chronic Stress Response
    6. 6. General Adaptation Syndrome: Three Stages of Stress <ul><li>Alarm —the fight or flight response </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance —the body attempts to reestablish equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion —the physical and psychological resources used to deal with stress are depleted </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Stress Response
    8. 8. Physical Toll of Stress <ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual dysfunctions </li></ul>
    9. 9. Effects of Stress <ul><li>Stress and immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic stress may cause the immune system to be under- or overactive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress and cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A personality: Competitive, ambitious impatient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with heart attacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type B personality: Relaxed, patient </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Benefits of Stress <ul><li>Moderate levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Yerkes-Dodson law
    12. 12. Student Stressors: Interpersonal <ul><li>Homesickness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most common problems facing college students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often doesn’t hit until a few weeks or a month after the big move </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very common stressor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty maintaining long-distance relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosing touch with old friends </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Student Stressors: Balancing Work and School
    14. 14. Student Stressors: Academic <ul><li>Test anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Speech anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Math anxiety </li></ul>
    15. 15. Student Stressors: Internal <ul><li>Procrastination </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectionism </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with goal setting and time management </li></ul>
    16. 16. Other Stressors <ul><li>Job stressors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with coworkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrealistic work loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tight deadlines and last minute projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental stressors </li></ul>
    17. 17. Stress and Gender
    18. 18. How Americans Cope with Stress
    19. 19. Physical Aspects of Stress Management <ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul>
    20. 20. Social Aspects of Stress Management <ul><li>Make time to have fun and play </li></ul><ul><li>Laughter is effective </li></ul><ul><li>Human contact through social connections </li></ul><ul><li>Pets can reduce stress </li></ul>
    21. 21. Environmental Aspects of Stress Management <ul><li>Reduce noise levels </li></ul><ul><li>Amount/type of light </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful and challenging experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetic quality of inhabited space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smell </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Psychological Aspects of Stress Management <ul><li>Relaxation and deep breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) </li></ul><ul><li>Guided imagery and visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback </li></ul>
    23. 23. Cognitive Aspects of Stress Management <ul><li>Time management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess your habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a planner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set goals and prioritize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stress inoculation </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive self-talk </li></ul><ul><li>Conquering procrastination </li></ul><ul><li>Combating perfectionism </li></ul>
    24. 24. Chapter Three: Managing Stress

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