Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol


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  • Making Decisions about Drugs and Alcohol

    1. 1. Chapter Seven: Making Decisions about Drug and Alcohol Use
    2. 2. Drugs <ul><li>Drug = any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, that by its chemical or physical nature alters structure or function in the living organism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoactive drug = any substance capable of altering feelings, moods, or perceptions </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Process of Addiction <ul><li>Addictive behavior has three common aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure : Introduced to the drug or behavior that is considered pleasurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsion : Time, energy, and money are spent to pursue the behavior. Normal behavior has already degenerated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of control: Addicted people lose the ability to control their behavior and results in addiction to more than one drug or behavior </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Codependence <ul><li>Applies to people who are close to an individual who is addicted to something </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of codependents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on protecting or coping with the addict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lose their sense of identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience stress, often resulting in chaotic behaviors, addictions, and physical illnesses </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Basic Drug Terms and Concepts <ul><li>Central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Routes of drug administration </li></ul><ul><li>Drug misuse </li></ul><ul><li>Drug abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Drug dependence </li></ul>
    6. 6. Central Nervous System <ul><li>Neuron : A nerve cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axon : The portion of a neuron that conducts electrical impulses to the dendrites of adjacent neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrite : The portion of a neuron that receive electrical stimuli from adjacent neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synapse : The location at which an electrical impulse from one neuron is transmitted to an adjacent neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitters : Chemical messengers that transfer electrical impulses across the synapses between nerve cells </li></ul>
    7. 7. Action of Psychoactive Drugs on the Central Nervous System
    8. 8. Drug Misuse and Abuse <ul><li>Drug misuse: Inappropriate use of legal drugs intended to be medications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional or unintentional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drug abuse: Any use of a legal or illegal drug in a way that is detrimental to health or well-being </li></ul>
    9. 9. Drug Dependence <ul><li>Addiction/physical dependence: Compulsive, uncontrollable dependence on a substance, habit, or practice to such a degree that cessation causes severe emotional or physiological reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal illness: Uncomfortable response of the body as it attempts to maintain homeostasis in the absence of a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance : An acquired reaction to a drug in which the continued intake of the same dose has diminished effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological dependence: Craving a drug for emotional reasons and to maintain a sense of well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Intoxication : Dysfunctional and disruptive changes in physiological and psychological functioning, mood, and cognitive processes </li></ul>
    10. 10. Six Categories of Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Depressants </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis </li></ul><ul><li>Narcotics </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalants </li></ul>
    11. 11. Past Month Use of Selected Psychoactive Drugs among Americans 12 and Older
    12. 12. Stimulants <ul><li>Key actions: Stimulate the function of the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate, blood pressure, brain function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of energy, exhilaration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphetamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methamphetamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caffeine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritalin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ephedra </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Depressants <ul><li>Key actions: Slow the function of the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced heart and breathing rates, blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered inhibitions, impaired judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedation, drowsiness, loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rohypnol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tranquilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHB </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Hallucinogens <ul><li>Key actions: Altered states of feeling and perception (hallucinations, distortions of reality) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased temperature, heart rate, blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness, tremors, nervousness, paranoia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synesthesia (sensation of combining of the senses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peyote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecstasy and designer drugs </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Cannabis <ul><li>Active ingredient: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) </li></ul><ul><li>Key actions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria, confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowed thinking and reaction time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired balance and coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cough, frequent respiratory infections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hashish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marijuana </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Narcotics (Opiates) <ul><li>Key actions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief of pain, euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced heart rate and blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedation, drowsiness, confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural and synthetic; derived from the Oriental poppy plant </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heroin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxycodone </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Inhalants <ul><li>Volatile compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Key actions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpredictable, drunklike effects; aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euphoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to respiratory and cardiovascular systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerosol propellants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrites (“laughing gas”) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Combination Drug Effects <ul><li>Synergistic effect = heightened or exaggerated effect produced by the concurrent use of two or more drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Additive effect = combined (but not exaggerated) effect produced by concurrent use of two or more drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Potentiated effect = the use of one drug intensifies the effect of a second drug </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonistic effect = effect produced when one drug reduces or offsets the effects of a second drug </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Nature of Alcoholic Beverages <ul><li>Ethyl alcohol or ethanol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced through fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be concentrated through distillation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beer: 4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wine: 10-14% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port, sherry: 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distilled liquors: 40-100% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proof = Twice the alcohol concentration </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Nature of Alcoholic Beverages <ul><li>Alcohol = central nervous system depressant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May appear to act as a stimulant in social situations because it depresses the inhibitory centers of the brain </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Physiological Effects of Alcohol Consumption <ul><li>Absorbed primarily in small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that influence absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of beverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of drinks consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed of consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race/ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metabolized in the liver </li></ul>
    22. 22. Gender and Alcohol Absorption <ul><li>Women absorb more alcohol more quickly than men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less alcohol dehydrogenase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportionately more body fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proportionately less body water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of menstrual cycle </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) <ul><li>BAC = percentage of alcohol in a measured quantity of blood </li></ul><ul><li>BAC rises when alcohol is consumed faster than it is metabolized by the liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BAC: 0.05% Changes in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BAC: 0.10% Decrease in motor function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BAC: 0.25% Body starts to shut down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acute alcohol intoxication = potentially fatal elevation of BAC, often resulting from heavy, rapid consumption of alcohol </li></ul>
    24. 24. Alcohol Poisoning <ul><li>Danger signs: Call 911 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After heavy drinking in a short period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness, deep stupor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak, rapid pulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular breathing, pale or bluish skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continue monitoring anyone who has passed out </li></ul>
    25. 25. Patterns of Alcohol Use <ul><li>Reasons people drink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective, affordable, legal psychoactive drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced inhibitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with positive events and characteristics, “good times” </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. College Drinking: Negative Consequences
    27. 27. Current, Binge, and Heavy Alcohol Use among Persons Ages 12 or Older
    28. 28. How Much Alcohol Do College Students Really Drink?
    29. 29. Alcohol Related Problems <ul><li>Alcohol-related medical problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of chronic use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal alcohol syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol-related psychological problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcoholism (Alcohol Dependence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol-related social problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime and violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol-related family problems </li></ul>
    30. 30. Effects of Alcohol Use on the Body
    31. 31. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) <ul><li>Alcohol crosses the placenta and can cause birth defects in unborn children </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial abnormalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fetal alcohol effects (FAE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial expression of FAS </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    33. 33. Alcohol-Related Psychological Problems <ul><li>Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance, withdrawal, pattern of compulsive use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical addiction, serious health effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern of drinking that creates personal difficulties or difficulties for other people—harmful consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences/indications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missing classes, reduced academic performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blackouts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legal problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Alcohol-Related Social Problems <ul><li>Accidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor vehicle collisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Falls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drowning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires and burns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crime and Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul>
    35. 35. Responsible Use of Alcohol <ul><li>Becoming a responsible drinker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid parties with heavy drinking and people who are drinking heavily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose non-alcoholic drinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate with others in positive activities </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Drug Testing <ul><li>Increasingly popular prevention tool </li></ul><ul><li>Federal employees and contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Many private companies test to screen job applicants or monitor employee drug use </li></ul>
    37. 37. Treatment and Intervention <ul><li>College or University health centers </li></ul><ul><li>Community programs </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Private facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Inpatient vs. outpatient treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help groups </li></ul>
    38. 38. Chapter Seven: Making Decisions about Drug and Alcohol Use