Becoming Physically Fit


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  • Becoming Physically Fit

    1. 1. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit
    2. 2. Basic Concepts <ul><li>Physical fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise (subset of physical activity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned, structured, and repetitive activity designed to improve or maintain physical fitness </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Four Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscular fitness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength vs. endurance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition </li></ul>
    4. 4. Cardiorespiratory Endurance <ul><li>Ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to process and transport oxygen over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by exercise involving continuous, repetitive movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: brisk walking, jogging, cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerobic (with oxygen) energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Structural and functional benefits </li></ul>
    5. 5. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Strength : Ability to contract skeletal muscles to a maximal level </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance : Ability to contract skeletal muscles repeatedly over a long period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Improved by performing repeated contractions at less than maximal levels </li></ul>
    6. 6. Flexibility and Body Composition <ul><li>Flexibility : Ability of your joints to move through an intended range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Body composition: The make-up of the body in terms of muscle, bone, fat, water, and minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness experts are most concerned with percentages of body fat and fat-free weight </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Developing a Personalized Fitness Program: Key Principles <ul><li>Overload : Placing increasing amounts of stress or resistance on the body causes changes that improve fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity : The type of exercise must be specific to the outcome that is targeted for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Reversibility (regression): “Use it or lose it” </li></ul>
    8. 8. Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training Factors <ul><li>Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul>
    9. 9. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance Program <ul><li>Mode of activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using large muscle groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoyable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-train and/or vary activities to maintain motivation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program <ul><li>Frequency (How often should I train?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3-5 times/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 5 times/week will not create further improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 3 times/week will not show significant improvement </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program <ul><li>Intensity (How hard should I train?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target heart rate (THR) = Between 65% and 90% of maximum heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum heart rate can be estimated by subtracting your age from 220 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target heart rate range = (220 – age) x 65-90% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample calculation for a 20-year-old: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>220 - 20 = 200 x 0.65 = 130 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>220 - 20 = 200 x 0.90 = 180 bpm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Developing a Cardiorespiratory Program <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACSM recommends 20-60 minutes of continuous activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lower the intensity, the longer the duration should be </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Types of Muscular Fitness Exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Isometric (“same length”): Muscle contraction without movement </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic (“same tension”): Muscle contraction with movement against a specific fixed resistance throughout the full range of motion </li></ul><ul><li>Isokinetic (“same motion”): Muscle contraction with movement against variable resistance through the full range of motion at a fixed speed </li></ul>
    14. 14. Muscular Fitness: Equipment
    15. 15. Muscular Fitness <ul><li>Frequency: 2 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>One set of 8-12 repetitions (10-15 repetitions for adults over 50) of 8-10 exercises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple sets could provide greater benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sufficient resistance to fatigue major muscle groups (legs, arms, shoulders, chest, back) </li></ul><ul><li>Training recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic or isokinetic exercises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full range of motion at a slow to moderate speed using rhythmic breathing </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Major Muscle Groups
    17. 17. Flexibility <ul><li>Failure to maintain flexibility can result in reduced range of motion and injury </li></ul><ul><li>Two forms of stretching motions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static stretching: Slow lengthening of a muscle group to an extended stretch, followed by a hold of the extended position for 10-30 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballistic stretching: A bouncing form of stretching in which a muscle group is lengthened repetitively to produce multiple quick, forceful stretches </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Flexibility Training <ul><li>Stretch all major muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 times/week </li></ul><ul><li>Should be done following a warm-up </li></ul><ul><li>Static stretching is preferred over ballistic stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Hold each stretch for 10-30 seconds </li></ul>
    19. 19. Body Composition <ul><li>Measurement of percent body fat is often included in a fitness program </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce body fat, an exercise program should maximize caloric expenditure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACSM recommends exercise sessions expending 300-400 calories </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. The Workout Routine <ul><li>Warm-up (5-10 minutes of slow, gradual, comfortable movements related to the upcoming activity; can end with a period of stretching) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioning (cardiorespiratory endurance, strength training, and/or flexibility workout following ACSM guidelines) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooldown (5-10 minutes of relaxing exercises to return the body to a resting state) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Exercise and Aging <ul><li>Change is gradual </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences occur </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest change is noted in areas of complex function </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic decline occurs with age </li></ul><ul><li>Stay physically active to slow physical decline </li></ul>
    22. 22. Changes in Older Adults <ul><li>Decrease in bone mass and changes in bone structure </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in muscle bulk and strength </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in cardiorespiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of nerve cells </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease hearing and vision abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease in sensory modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Slower reaction time </li></ul><ul><li>Gait and postural changes </li></ul>
    23. 23. Exercise for Older Adults <ul><li>Exercises for younger adults may be inappropriate for people over aged 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision from a certified instructor may be necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Physical exams are recommended before beginning a program </li></ul><ul><li>Well-designed programs should start slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize signs of distress </li></ul>
    24. 24. Special Health Concerns <ul><li>Low-back pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects 4 out of 5 adults at least once in their lifetimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical (postural) problems tend to be the main culprit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity greatly reduces the occurrences of low-back pain </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Special Health Concerns <ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased bone mass; may lead to fractures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of suffers are women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower level of estrogen may decrease calcium absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake; weight bearing exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in older adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often occurs in weight-bearing joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition is also a key factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular physical activity may reduce the risk for osteoarthritis </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Training Recommendations <ul><li>Drink enough fluid before, during, and after activity </li></ul><ul><li>Wear comfortable clothing that promotes temperature regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate safety equipment </li></ul>
    27. 27. Effects of Steroids
    28. 28. Exercise Injuries: Strategies for Prevention and Care <ul><li>Start at a low level and progress gradually </li></ul><ul><li>If you stop exercising for an extended time, do not restart at the level at which you stopped </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to your body </li></ul><ul><li>Follow rehabilitation instructions carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a preventive approach to all injuries </li></ul>
    29. 29. Chapter Four: Becoming Physically Fit