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Biochem 2: Organic Macromolecules

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Biochem 2: Organic Macromolecules

  1. 1. BellRingerBellRinger Explain the effect that soap has onExplain the effect that soap has on water. Phrase your response in terms ofwater. Phrase your response in terms of the effect soap has on the Hydrogenthe effect soap has on the Hydrogen Bonds between water molecules.Bonds between water molecules. What does the wordWhat does the word CarbohydratesCarbohydrates make you think of?make you think of?
  2. 2. AgendaAgenda Collect LAB: Properties of WaterCollect LAB: Properties of Water Guided Notes: Organic MacromoleculesGuided Notes: Organic Macromolecules Life is Carbon-BasedLife is Carbon-Based Identify the 4 Types of MacromoleculesIdentify the 4 Types of Macromolecules How Long Chains Form (Polymerization)How Long Chains Form (Polymerization) Identify chemical structure and function ofIdentify chemical structure and function of many types of macromoleculesmany types of macromolecules
  3. 3. Organic MacromoleculesOrganic Macromolecules Macromolecule literally means “Giant Molecule”Macromolecule literally means “Giant Molecule” Organic Macromolecules are all based on aOrganic Macromolecules are all based on a “skeleton” of carbon atoms.“skeleton” of carbon atoms. Life is based on Carbon for 2 reasonsLife is based on Carbon for 2 reasons 1.1. Carbon is abundant in natureCarbon is abundant in nature 2.2. Carbon has the ability to bond with itself andCarbon has the ability to bond with itself and with many different elementswith many different elements
  4. 4. Carbon Basis of LifeCarbon Basis of Life
  5. 5. 4 Types of Macromolecules4 Types of Macromolecules Carbohydrates:Carbohydrates: Sugars + StarchesSugars + Starches Lipids:Lipids: Fats and OilsFats and Oils Protein:Protein: Muscle TissueMuscle Tissue Nucleic Acids:Nucleic Acids: Microscopic Genetic MaterialMicroscopic Genetic Material
  6. 6. Identify each exampleIdentify each example according to type ofaccording to type of macromolecule. . .macromolecule. . .
  7. 7. ButterButter
  8. 8. Chicken BreastChicken Breast
  9. 9. BreadBread
  10. 10. Fish FiletFish Filet
  11. 11. Pizza GreasePizza Grease
  12. 12. Corn SyrupCorn Syrup
  13. 13. DNADNA
  14. 14. PolymerizationPolymerization Macromolecules are built by linking togetherMacromolecules are built by linking together smaller molecules (monomers) into long chainssmaller molecules (monomers) into long chains (polymers)(polymers) Monomers combine by disconnecting from some ofMonomers combine by disconnecting from some of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms between themthe hydrogen and oxygen atoms between them After the monomers bond, the excess hydrogenAfter the monomers bond, the excess hydrogen and oxygen atoms form a water molecule.and oxygen atoms form a water molecule. Since this bonding process releases water, we call itSince this bonding process releases water, we call it Dehydration SynthesisDehydration Synthesis
  15. 15. Carbohydrates:Carbohydrates: MonosaccharidesMonosaccharides The monomer of carbohydrates is a single sugarThe monomer of carbohydrates is a single sugar with the chemical formula of Cwith the chemical formula of C66HH1212OO66 These simple sugars are called MonosaccharidesThese simple sugars are called Monosaccharides All monosaccharides have the same chemicalAll monosaccharides have the same chemical formula, but different shapes.formula, but different shapes. Examples:Examples: GlucoseGlucose FructoseFructose GalactoseGalactose
  16. 16. Carbohydrates: DisaccharidesCarbohydrates: Disaccharides Disaccharide = Double sugar.Disaccharide = Double sugar. They’re made by joining 2 monosaccharidesThey’re made by joining 2 monosaccharides Examples:Examples: Sucrose: Table SugarSucrose: Table Sugar Lactose: Milk SugarLactose: Milk Sugar Maltose: Grain SugarMaltose: Grain Sugar
  17. 17. SUCROSE: Table SugarSUCROSE: Table Sugar
  18. 18. Carbohydrates: PolysaccharidesCarbohydrates: Polysaccharides Polysaccharide = Many sugarsPolysaccharide = Many sugars This is a long chain of monosaccharidesThis is a long chain of monosaccharides Examples:Examples: Starch: Grain FoodsStarch: Grain Foods Cellulose: Plant fiberCellulose: Plant fiber
  19. 19. Starch Glycogen Cellulose Glucose Monomer
  20. 20. LipidsLipids Lipids are made of mostly carbon and hydrogen.Lipids are made of mostly carbon and hydrogen. Lipids are used in two ways:Lipids are used in two ways: Storage of energyStorage of energy Insulate and Cushion OrgansInsulate and Cushion Organs Lipids are composed of two units bonded togetherLipids are composed of two units bonded together that form the shape of a capital E.that form the shape of a capital E. Glycerol: The vertical “backbone”Glycerol: The vertical “backbone” Fatty Acids: The horizontal chainsFatty Acids: The horizontal chains
  21. 21. Types of LipidsTypes of Lipids There are two types of Lipids:There are two types of Lipids: Saturated - when each carbon atom in theSaturated - when each carbon atom in the fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon byfatty acid chain is joined to another carbon by a single bond. The fatty acids are straight.a single bond. The fatty acids are straight. Unsaturated - if there is at least one carbon toUnsaturated - if there is at least one carbon to carbon bond that is a double bond in a fattycarbon bond that is a double bond in a fatty acid chain. The fatty acids are bent.acid chain. The fatty acids are bent.
  22. 22. glycerol molecule fatty acid chain
  23. 23. Comparing plant and animal fatsComparing plant and animal fats Most animal fats have a high proportion of saturatedMost animal fats have a high proportion of saturated fatty acids & exist as solids at room temperaturefatty acids & exist as solids at room temperature (butter, margarine, shortening)(butter, margarine, shortening) Most plant oils tend to be low in saturated fatty acidsMost plant oils tend to be low in saturated fatty acids & exist as liquids at room temperature (oils)& exist as liquids at room temperature (oils)
  24. 24. ProteinsProteins Proteins contain nitrogen as well as carbon,Proteins contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.hydrogen, and oxygen. Proteins are extremely long polymers ofProteins are extremely long polymers of molecules called amino acids.molecules called amino acids. Proteins are used for muscles, act as hormonesProteins are used for muscles, act as hormones & enzymes, and do much of the work inside& enzymes, and do much of the work inside body cellsbody cells
  25. 25. Protein Folding & DenaturingProtein Folding & Denaturing Protein chains can bend and fold into a variety ofProtein chains can bend and fold into a variety of shapes, depending on the job they need to do.shapes, depending on the job they need to do. Some large proteins are made by combining manySome large proteins are made by combining many protein chains together.protein chains together. Changes in temperature & pH can denatureChanges in temperature & pH can denature (unfold) a protein so that it no longer works(unfold) a protein so that it no longer works
  26. 26. Denaturating ProteinsDenaturating Proteins Cooking denatures protein in eggs Milk protein separates into curds & whey when it is exposed to acids
  27. 27. Nucleic AcidsNucleic Acids Nucleic acids are macromolecules containingNucleic acids are macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, andhydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.phosphorus. They are composed of long chains of nucleotidesThey are composed of long chains of nucleotides (monomer).(monomer). Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, orNucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.genetic, information. There are two types of nucleic acid:There are two types of nucleic acid:  DNA - deoxyribonucleic acidDNA - deoxyribonucleic acid  RNA - ribonucleic acidRNA - ribonucleic acid
  28. 28. 35Copyright Cmassengale
  29. 29. AssignmentsAssignments Review QuestionsReview Questions Macromolecules Concept MapMacromolecules Concept Map
  30. 30. AssignmentsAssignments Review QuestionsReview Questions Macromolecules Concept MapMacromolecules Concept Map

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