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  1. 1. Bellringer  Based on you experience with the microscope, which was larger, plant cells or bacterial cells?  How do you think those bacterial cells were able to move around?
  2. 2. Agenda  Collect Homework – Microscope Skills Lab – Any Old Assignments (P-T conf. tonight)  Notes: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Membrane and movement – 2 main types of cells – Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells
  3. 3. Cell Membrane & Cytoplasm  The cell membrane is the outer edge of a cell.  Membranes are made of specialized fats called “Phospholipids”  The membrane is filled with a jelly-like fluid called cytoplasm
  4. 4. Flagella & Cilia  Flagella & Cilia are hair-like structures attached to the outside of some cells.  Unicellular creatures use these to swim. – Flagella are long and few in number – Cilia are short and numerous
  5. 5. Video Clip: Flagella & Cilia
  6. 6. Human Flagella & Cilia: Sperm and Lungs
  7. 7. Types of Cells  There are two types of cells: – Prokaryotes: Simple – Eukaryotes: Complex
  8. 8. Prokaryotes  Prefix “Pro” means “First”  Prokaryotes are believed to be the most primitive forms of life – They have no nucleus, so the DNA floats free in the cytoplasm – There are no organelles (specialized parts) inside  Bacteria are Prokaryotic
  9. 9. Eukaryotes  Prefix “Eu” means “New”  These cells have internal organization – The DNA is contained within a nucleus that keeps it separate from other parts of cell – There are organelles specialized for jobs  Plants and Animals are Eukaryotic
  10. 10. List of Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells  Nucleus  Ribosomes  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Golgi Apparatus  Mitochondria  Lysosomes  Vacuoles
  11. 11. Nucleus  The nucleus contains the cell’s DNA.  It is large enough to be easily seen under a microscope  DNA is the coded instructions for telling the rest of the cell how to make proteins.
  12. 12. Ribosomes  Ribosomes are small structures where proteins are assembled. – Some ribosomes are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. – Some ribosomes are ‘free floating’ in the cytoplasm.
  13. 13. Endoplasmic Reticulum  The Endoplasmic Reticulum is a series of flattened tubes attached to the nucleus  There are two types. – Rough ER – Smooth ER
  14. 14. Rough ER  Rough ER is called rough, because it has ribosomes attached to the outer membrane.  Proteins made by the ribosomes enter into the rough ER where it is stored and chemically modified.
  15. 15. Smooth ER  Smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached to the outer membrane; therefore, it has a “smooth” appearance.  In the smooth ER, lipids are assembled and detoxification (breaking down harmful substances) occurs.
  16. 16. Golgi Apparatus  Golgi apparatus’ function is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials (lipids) from the ER and transport them to the outside of the cell.
  17. 17. Summary of Protein Building and Transportation within Cells  1) DNA within the Nucleus has instructions  2) Instructions are brought to the ribosomes by a chemical signal  3) Ribosomes in the Rough ER build the protein  4) ER packages assembled proteins and sends them to the Golgi Apparatus  5) Golgi Apparatus receives proteins and lipids, then repackages them to be sent to next destination in the body.
  18. 18. Mitochondria  Mitochondria are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food (glucose) into a usable form (ATP).  This process is called cellular respiration
  19. 19. Lysosomes  Lysosomes are small organelles filled with digestive enzymes.  These enzymes function in breaking down and recycling molecules within the cell.
  20. 20. Vacuoles  Vacuoles store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates for the cell to use at a later time.