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Biochem 5: Enzymes


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Biochem 5: Enzymes

  1. 1. BELLRINGER  What were the 2 food-based chemical reactions we studied in yesterday’s experiment?  What are the proteins that speed up metabolic reactions called?
  2. 2. AGENDA  Collect LAB: Exploring Enzymes  NOTES: Enzymes  Shape, Function, and Naming  Factor’s that slow enzymes  Activation Energy
  3. 3. ENZYMES & SUBSTRATES  Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions in the body  The molecules that are affected by enzymes are called substrates  Example: Amylase is an enzyme in saliva that breaks down starchy foods like bread and pasta. In this case, starch is the substrate of amylase.
  4. 4. SUMMARY OF ENZYME PROPERTIES  Shape: Enzymes are globular (balled up) proteins  Function: Enzymes work by temporarily bonding with substrate molecules  Reusable: A single enzyme can be used multiple times  Name: Enzymes are named for the substrates they affect
  5. 5. SHAPE OF ENZYMES  Enzymes are long protein chains that are “knotted up” like a ball of yarn.  The surface of an enzyme has a small pocket called the active site which is shaped to bind substrate molecules. Enzyme Active Site Substrate
  6. 6. HOW ENZYMES WORK  Substrate molecules temporarily bond with the enzyme at the active site.  The enzyme bends the substrate in a way that either breaks the molecule apart or allows it to bond with another substrate  Once the reaction is complete the enzyme releases the products.
  8. 8. ENZYMES ARE REUSABLE  An enzyme only bonds with the substrate it works on for a short time.  After the reaction is over, the enzyme returns to it’s original shape and is ready to work again.  A single enzyme can induce millions of reactions per second.
  9. 9. ENZYMATIC REACTION substrate (sucrose) + enzyme (sucrase)  enzyme-substrate complex  and + sucrase glucose fructose products + enzyme
  10. 10. ENZYME NAMING  Enzymes are specific to only one substrate.  Since each enzymes only works on one reaction, they are named for the molecules they affect.  To name an enzyme, simply add the ~ase ending.  Examples  Lactose sugar is broken down by the enzyme Lactase
  11. 11. FACTORS THAT SLOW ENZYMES  Enzymes are only effective when their active site is in the proper shape.  Since enzymes are proteins, they can become denatured (unfolded) and will no longer work.  2 things will denature proteins  Changes in pH  Changes in Temperature
  12. 12. ACTIVATION ENERGY  Many chemical reactions need energy to begin.  This energy that starts a reaction is called the activation energy.  Examples:  Photosynthesis requires activation energy from the sun  Wood will not start burning without initial heat source
  14. 14. ENZYMES LOWER ACTIVATION ENERGY  Enzymes speed reactions up by reducing the amount of activation energy a reaction needs.  The activation energy is reduced because the molecules at the active site are held in positions that make reactions easier.