NapoleonBonaparte (1769 -1821) Created by tbonnar.
Napoleon’s Early Days Napoleon was born in Corsica (a French territory) in August 1769. His family belonged to the high social class He was sent to military academy in France Napoleon graduated in 1785, at the age of 16, and joined the artillery as a second lieutenant. During the French Revolution he served the Revolutionary Army.
“I am no ordinary man.” Napoleon rose quickly in the army during the revolution because so many officers fled France. In 1793, Napoleon commanded the French troops that ousted the British from Toulon. By age 27, Napoleon was a general.
The Directory It can be argued that the French Revolution ended in 1795. A new constitution established a new government known as the Directory. The Directory included an elected legislature and an executive branch with five directors.
The younggeneral soonreceived commandof a French armyfor an invasion ofItaly. He won severalbrilliant victoriesover the Austrianswho ruled there. Napoleon’ssuccesses forcedAustria to withdrawfrom the war in1797.
In 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt because it was a vital lifeline to British outposts in India. Napoleon quickly defeated the Egyptian army. However, the British fleet, under Admiral Horatio Nelson, destroyed the French fleet in the battle of the Nile. Horatio Nelson (1758-1805)
Leaving the army in Egypt, Napoleon returned to Paris. The French people were not fully aware of the losses in Egypt, and they welcomed him as a hero. In Paris, Napoleon found that many people were dissatisfied with the Directory. With the help of troops loyal to him, he and two directors overthrew the government in November, 1799.
Napoleon as “First Consul” After returning from Egypt, Napoleon launched a successful coup d’ etat on November 9, 1799. He proclaimed himself “First Consul” [Julius Caesar’s title] and did away with the elected Assembly. In 1802, he made himself sole “Consul for Life.” Two years later he proclaimed himself “Emperor.”
Napoleon’s Domestic Policy By 1804, Napoleon had gained almost absolute power. He knew the French would never stand for a return to the Old Regime. Therefore, he continued many reforms of the revolution. But at the same time, he kept firm personal control of the government.
Napoleon Established the Banque de France, 1800Napoleon enforced a law requiring all citizens to paytaxes. He also created the national Bank of France,in which the tax money was deposited. The Bank, inturn, issued money and made loans to businesses.
Lycée System of Education Established by Napoleon in 1801 as an educational reform. Lycées initially enrolled the nation’s most talented students [they had to pay tuition, although there was some financial help available for poorer student]. Lycées trained the nation’s future bureaucrats.
Code Napoleon, 1804 It divides civil law into: Personal status. Property. Its purpose was to reform the French legal code to reflect the The acquisition of principles of the Fr. Revolution. property. Create one law code for France.
The Napoleonic Code Napoleon’s greatest achievement in government was the Napoleonic Code, which influenced French law to the present. It recognized that all men were equal before the law and guaranteed freedom of religion as well as a person’s right to work in any occupation. However, it put the interests of the state above those of individual citizens and it dropped laws passed during the revolution that had protected the rights of women and children.
The Influence of theNapoleonic Code Wherever it was implemented [in the conquered territories], the Code Napoleon swept away feudal property relations.
Emperor Napoleon In 1804, Napoleon became “Emperor of the French.” As Pope Pius VIII prepared to crown the emperor, Napoleon took the crown and placed it on his head himself. By this gesture, Napoleon showed that he did not bow to any authority. He then proceeded to crown his wife, the Empress Josephine.
Napoleon’s Family Rules! Jerome Bonaparte King of Westphalia. Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain Louise Bonaparte King of Holland Pauline Bonaparte Princess of Italy Napoléon Francis Joseph Charles (son) King of Rome Elisa Bonaparte Grand Duchess of Tuscany Caroline Bonaparte Queen of Naples
The Empire of Napoleon In the early 1800s, France fought all the major European powers. Through shrewd diplomacy, Napoleon usually kept the European powers divided so they could not unite against him.
Europe under French rule From 1807 to 1812, Napoleon was at the height of his power. He controlled an empire that stretched from France to the borders of Russia
Europe under French rule While ruling this vast empire, Napoleon helped spread the ideas of the French Revolution across Europe. He introduced religious toleration, abolished serfdom, made the Napoleonic Code into law and reduced the power of the Catholic Church. However, Napoleon lost much support when he imposed high taxes to finance his continuing conflict with Britain.
The Continental System Although Napoleon defeated the major powers on the continent, he was unable to bring Britain to its knees. Admiral Nelson dashed Napoleon’s plans by sinking most of the French fleet at Cape Trafalgar, near Spain. Napoleon then decided to blockade British ports and ordered all European nations to stop trade with Britain. This was called the Continental System.
The Continental System Unfortunately for France, the Continental System backfired. Britain did lose trade, but France suffered more. The powerful British navy was able to cut off overseas imports to France and the rest of the continent. This weakened the French economy.
Stirrings of Nationalism During the reign of Napoleon, the concept of Nationalism began to become popular. Nationalism is the belief that a people group can make one great nation together. Napoleon used the desire of people to have their own nation to help him defeat the Austrian Empire.
Haitian Independence, 1792-1804 Haitian slaves revolted against Britain because of the ideas of freedom and nationalism. Napoleon helped them at first, but then turned against the revolution. Toussaint L’Ouverture
Nationalism turns against Napoleon Opposition to Napoleon also grew among the conquered and allied peoples of Europe, who were developing a sense of nationalism, or pride and devotion to one’s own country. They resented paying taxes to France and sending soldiers to serve in Napoleon’s armies. They wanted to restore their own governments, customs, and traditions. As nationalists feelings grew, revolts broke out all over Europe.
The Emperor’s Downfall In 1812, Napoleon decided to invade Russia. Napoleon assembled an army of over 500,000 soldiers, and in May 1812, he led this Grand Army into Russia. Napoleon planned to defeat the Russians in a quick, decisive battle. To his surprise, the Russians refused to stand and fight. Instead, they retreated, burning their crops and homes as they went. They forced Napoleon to lead his army deeper into Russia.
The Russians finally engaged the French near Moscow, 500 miles inside Russia. The French won, but when Napoleon entered Moscow, he found the Russian capital in flames. Napoleon soon realized he could not feed and house his army in Moscow. Thus, in October 1812, he ordered a retreat.
During the retreat, the bitterly cold Russian winter turned the French victory into a disastrous defeat. Thousands of Napoleon’s soldiers starved or froze to death. The Russian army attacked the stragglers. Fewer than 100,000 escaped from Russia.
A powerful alliance made up of Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia pounced on the weakened French army as it limped out of Russia. Napoleon rushed home to raise a new army, but his efforts failed. In March 1814, the allies captured Paris. Napoleon abdicated and went into exile on the island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.
After Napoleon was exiled, the monarchy was restored, but the king was quite different than his ancestors. In 1814, Louis XVIII issued a constitution that provided for equality under the law for all citizens, an elected legislature, and religious freedom. He also kept the Napoleonic Code. When Louis XVIII became king, many émigrés returned to France and demanded revenge on supporters of the French Revolution. Napoleon took advantage of the resulting disturbances to return to Paris. Louis XVIII (1755-1824)
In March 1815, he again proclaimed himself emperor. Discontented soldiers rallied to his side. For 100 days, he worked to rebuild the French army. But the European allies acted swiftly. In June 1815, a joint British and Prussian army Duke of Wellington led by the Duke of (1769-1852) Wellington defeated the French at Waterloo.
Napoleon’s Final ExileNapoleon was exiled to theisland of St. Helena in theAtlantic, where he died in1821.
After-Effects: 1815 After Napoleon lost power in 1815, the most powerful leaders in Europe met to try to restore order. In other words, to make things the way they were before the French Revolution. This was called the Congress of Vienna Russia, Austria, Prussia (now part of Germany) created the Holy Alliance to maintain power for kings and prevent democracy and nationalism.
After-Effects: 1815 Britain was a much more democratic country than those of the Holy Alliance. But it preferred stability in Europe over more revolutions. It focused on trying to establish a Balance of Power between the countries in order to prevent war
After-Effects: 1820s-1830s Revolutions broke out in Latin America because Spain was no longer strong enough to control its territory. The most famous revolutionary was Simón Bolivar
After-Effects: 1830 In 1830, revolutions broke out in several countries including France (where a new king was appointed) and the Netherlands, which split into two countries – Belgium and Holland.
After-Effects: 1848 Once again, revolutions sprang up in several places. In France, the King lost power and was replaced by a president – Louis Napoleon. Italians, Czechs and Hungarians all rebelled against Austria. Germans attempted to create a parliament for the first time.
The Unification of Italy Prior to 1860 Italy was made up of many small states, some of which were controlled by Austria or France. 1860 – Piedmont convinced several states in the north to join together peacefully 1860 – Garibaldi took some states by force – with an army of 1000 soldiers. By 1871 – Venetia and Rome had joined and modern Italy was united.
The Unification of Germany Germany was also divided into a bunch of small states, the largest and most powerful of which was Prussia. It was able to gain strength through industrializing faster than other countries. 1851 – the Zollverein (customs union) joined several states to Prussia. 1866 – winning a war against Austria gave Prussia control of more German-speaking territory 1871 – winning a war against France gave Germany control over Alsace and Lorraine (and helped create a disagreement that helped lead to World War I)