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  1. 1. Industrial Revolution Seventh Grade
  2. 2. Industrialism Begins Industrialism is the name for the economic changes which began in Britain in the 1700's and swept through other western nations
  3. 3. Before Industrialsim Prior to the Industrial Revolution, people lived in small villages, raised their own food and made their own goods.
  4. 4. Textiles Textiles are cloth and cloth products. People in Britain made clothes in their cottages and homes and merchants traveled from cottage to cottage buying and selling wool, cotton and clothes.
  5. 5. Machines The invention of textile machinery was the beginning of industrialization.
  6. 6. Why Britain? In the early 1700's, the British government passed a law to allow landowners to enclose their property. This allowed them to raise larger crops and fence off pastures.
  7. 7. Enclosure Enclosure allowed farmers to make more money, which they began investing in banks with bankers. Bankers looked to help people make more money. Bankers provided capital.
  8. 8. Urbanization Many peasants had to move off the land with enclosure, and they moved to the cities. They became available for work in industry. This is called labor.
  9. 9. Larger Populations People began to live healthier in the 1700's due to the discovery of new foods and the diminishing of diseases like the Black Plague.
  10. 10. New Inventions James Hargreaves invented a spinning jenny to weave cotton into thread quickly Richard Arkwright developed a way to power a spinning machine with water Edmund Cartwright made a powered loom that could spin the thread into cloth as quickly as it was made
  11. 11. Powering the New Machines James Watt designed a steam engine that could power the new machines in 1769. Steam soon replaced water as the major source of power.
  12. 12. Coal, Iron and Steel Henry Cort found a way to use coal to turn iron ore into pure iron. Iron became cheaper and coal mining became a major industry. Henry Bessemer invented an inexpensive way to turn iron into steel, a stronger substance than iron.
  13. 13. Factories Because machines got so much bigger, they began to be placed in factories---places where people who operated the machines could come and work
  14. 14. Business Owners In order to afford the new machines and equipment for industry, people began making partnerships and corporations. A corporation sells shares in the company to investors.
  15. 15. Transportation In 1807, Robert Fulton (American) developed a boat powered by steam. In the 1800's, steam-powered locomotives were invented (trains).
  16. 16. Government Britain's advances gave them an advantage over other countries. British government passed laws to make the new inventors and owners happy so they would not move to other countries.
  17. 17. The Factors of Production In order for a country to industrialize, the factors of production are needed. Britain had all the necessary factors of production for industry.
  18. 18. Land Land is the most important factor of production. Land represents all natural resources. These are minerals, water, wood, soil, etc. Because natural resources may be exhausted, they represent the idea of scarcity.
  19. 19. Labor Labor represents people available to work in industry. Because of enclosure and a growth in population, there were more people available to work in the factories in Britain.
  20. 20. Capital Capital is money and the ability to create wealth. Banks lend money. Equipment makes products. Thus, both equipment and cash are capital.
  21. 21. Entrepreneurship Inventors and business investors are called entrepreneurs. They create ways to make money through ideas and organizations.
  22. 22. Government The British government favored industry and passed laws to help people build industry.
  23. 23. Effects of Industry People lived longer lives 1. People moved around more: Immigration 2. People moved to cities and cities got larger: Urbanization 3. The average person had more wealth 4. Wealth was concentrated in the Middle Class Owners of factories became a class called Bourgeoisie 5. Workers became increasingly less wealthy; they were called laborers, commoners, serfs...
  24. 24. These countries became industrialized after Britain France Belgium Germany The United States Industrialized countries were concentrated in the west and became more advanced than those in the east.
  25. 25. The New Faith in Science Electricity, telegraphs, telephones, cars, planes all were inventions made to create wealth. Because they made people's lives easier, people began to trust scientific discoveries to solve problems in societies.
  26. 26. The New Social Order For hundreds of years, power in societies rested with nobles (the aristocratic class). They owned land but did not work. Nobles were born nobles. The new factory owners were able to live like wealthy nobility. Owners became the new wealthy or the new rich (nouveau riche ).
  27. 27. The Working Class Entire working class families, children and adults had to work to make enough money to live. They worked for wages. Working conditions were poor and work hours were long. Eventually new laws were passed to ease some of their struggles.
  28. 28. New Political Ideas What should the role of government be in the New Societies created from industrialization?
  29. 29. Liberalism Liberalism is the political philosophy based on the ideas of the Enlightenment. The ideas of liberalism are different than the ideas of liberals today.
  30. 30. Basic Principles of Liberalism ● People have basic rights ● People should have equality before the law ● Governments should be limited by constitutions ● Elected assemblies or parliaments should make laws ● Voters should be male citizens
  31. 31. Adam Smith British economist Adam Smith believed that government should not interfere with business. Many of the new middle class agreed with him. This became known as laissez-faire, a french term meaning “to let be”
  32. 32. Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill were two British thinkers who believed that the role of government should be to promote the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. Otherwise the government is not useful—this is called utilitarianism. Utilitarianists supported more rights for women, better education and improved health services.
  33. 33. Socialism Socialists believed that factories, land, capital and raw materials (the means of production) should be owned and controlled by the society through the government.
  34. 34. Karl Marx Marx was a German living in London with a wealthy industrialist family (Engels). He believed that the competition among the social classes was harmful to society. He thought that the working class (proletariats) would rise up and create a communist society, which would have not classes---everyone would be equal. He used the French revolution as an example.
  35. 35. Understanding the four ideas about government and the economy Laissez Faire capitalism Liberal Capitalism Moderate Socialism Marxist Socialism--Communism
  36. 36. Supply and Demand Capitalsim— how it works Demand: the desire for products Supply: the availability of products Cost of Productions: what it costs the owner to make the product Price: what the consumer pays for the product Profit: Price minus cost Scarcity: the concept that all of these forces operate in a world where there is never enough Opportunity Cost: the second best thing to do your resources
  37. 37. Demand All things being equal, people will demand more of a product at a lower rather than higher price Other demand determinants: fashion, trends
  38. 38. Supply All things being equal, producers will make more of a product when they can sell it at a higher price
  39. 39. Equilibrium In theory, supply and demand will work against each other to create a fair market price---and people will get the best goods at the lowest prices
  40. 40. The Iron Law of Wages According to David Ricardo, labor follows the same forces as supply and demand. The wage is the price of labor.
  41. 41. Government In order for prices and wages to be fair and societies to get the best goods at the lowest prices, laissez faire capitalists believe that government should not interfere with the economy or at least interfere very little
  42. 42. Liberalist and Capitalists Utilitarian capitalists suggest that government must intervene in the economy to insure equality and justice to the most people. Otherwise the working class lives will never improve, because it is not profitable for owners to treat them better.
  43. 43. Moderate Socialists Some people wish for a government that controls some of the means of production in the interest of equality and justice.
  44. 44. Marxists Marx did not think the government should interfere in the economy but allow the natural revolution of the proletariats to occur, the end result would be a classless society.
  45. 45. Romanticism Artists and writers reacted to the Age of Reason by valuing feelings and imagination Poets like William Wordsworth (Britain) and Johann von Goethe valued nature and the past. Beethoven was the first romantic musician. His work expressed strong emotion.
  46. 46. Realism Some writers and artists turned away from romanticism and focused on ordinary people in ordinary situations. Balzac (France) Dickens (Britain) Tolstoy (Russia) While romanticists turned from industrialist society, realist tried to examine it.
  47. 47. Modernism and Impressionism Modernists studies social problems in their work, such as alcoholism, crime and women's rights. Some believed that the outer world was merely a reflection of the inner world of an individual. Impressionists were artists that studies the way light effected objects.
  48. 48. Science and Medicine In 1868, Louis Pasteur proved that germs caused diseases and heating germs could cure disease Joseph Lister improved surgery with sterile medical equipment Gregor Mendel uncovered the principles of genetics Albert Einstein proved that space and time were relative, not permanent He also developed the theory of relativity.
  49. 49. Charles Darwin Plants and animals change over time according to the laws of survival of the fitness and natural selection. Some people applied his ideas to society to justify the inequalities of industrial capitalism.