CISC Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel


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A presentation on the new CISC AESS documents that was given at the OAA Conventions in Winnipeg 2010 and Toronto 2011. Introducing the AESS Categories, and the new Matrix. Authored by Terri Boake and Sylvie Boulanger.

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CISC Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel

  1. 1. OAA-Toronto-May2011 CISC’s new AESS docs: The little matrix that could OAA Convention – Toronto, Ontario, 19 May 2011
  2. 2. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The New CISC Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel Documents Sylvie Boulanger Canadian Institute of Steel Construction Terri Meyer Boake University of Waterloo
  3. 3. OAA-Toronto-May2011 What is AESS? • Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel is steel that has been purposefully left exposed • It is normally part of the Architectural aesthetic of the space • It usually requires detailing, finish and handling that requires more attention and care than regular structural steel • It adds to the cost of the contract
  4. 4. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Where did AESS come from? • Early iron structures were typically left ‘exposed’ • Much exposed iron (cast or wrought) could be found in bridges • Architectural uses were associated with highly glazed structures • Part of structural rationalist design of the mid 1800s • Key in High Tech architecture of the 70s
  5. 5. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Structural Rationalism Connections were “enhanced” to add to the overall texture and aesthetic to make it more in keeping with traditional architecture of the period. Biblioteque Nationale, Paris: Henri Labrouste
  6. 6. OAA-Toronto-May2011 STRUCTURALLY EXPOSED STEEL BRIDGES The Iron Bridge Coalbrookdale UK Engineering
  7. 7. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Portman Bridge, Vancouver Later bridges were simplified to reflect “load paths” – “decoration” lost
  8. 8. OAA-Toronto-May2011
  9. 9. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Amgen Helix Bridge Engineering or Architecture?
  10. 10. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Architecture wanted more! Foster, Sainsbury Centre, 1977 The High Tech Movement
  11. 11. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Contemporary AESS Chicago O’Hare was the first AESS Airport Detailing and workmanship expectations rose.
  12. 12. OAA-Toronto-May2011 BCE Place,Toronto - CalatravaAND ROSE!!!
  13. 13. OAA-Toronto-May2011 How good is “Good Enough”? • AESS was being used on very high profile projects • AESS was also being specified for mid to lower end projects • Not all projects had/have the budget to pay for the sort of detailing of “A Calatrava” • There was no agreed language or specification that could assist in the communication of expectations between the Architect, Engineer and Fabricator Wisconsin Art Museum, Calatrava
  14. 14. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Problems Specifying AESS • In spite of the increasing use of AESS the only steel spec in existence was for standard structural steel • Miscellaneous Metals did not address the structural requirements of AESS • AESS could be priced out of sight on projects if excessive requirements were added “out of ignorance” • All AESS did not need to be equally crafted… • Not to say that it should not be properly crafted, but not all situations or projects either needed or could afford the same level of detailing
  15. 15. OAA-Toronto-May2011 “God is in the details” What are they doing?
  16. 16. OAA-Toronto-May2011 They are grinding the surfaces …
  17. 17. OAA-Toronto-May2011 ... for a structure that will be visible close-up, but for passengers that are just standing by, waiting for an airport taxi.
  18. 18. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Baltimore Washington International Airport
  19. 19. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The welded connections on this truss are basic, not particularly refined.
  20. 20. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Why? Because it doesn’t matter, given the thickness of the coating …
  21. 21. OAA-Toronto-May2011 … and the distance.
  22. 22. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Dallas Opryland
  23. 23. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Pretty smooth welded connections! A steel fabricator’s main office!
  24. 24. OAA-Toronto-May2011 A reaction to the AISC documents of 2003 CISC felt the need to create a tiered/differentiated system to prevent the “over specification” of finish quality. Unnecessary high standards in finishes could put projects out of reasonable price range.
  25. 25. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS Questions • When? – It all started with .... • Why? – To improve communication • How? – Initiatives, committee, roundtables • What? – Category Matrix / A Spec, a Code, a Guide • Who? – Architect | Engineer | Fabricator
  26. 26. OAA-Toronto-May2011 To find common ground Why?
  27. 27. OAA-Toronto-May2011 I want nice connections! Architect architect engineer fabricator
  28. 28. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS Custody Battle! Exposed steel is “owned” by the Architect, the Engineer and by the Fabricator! Success requires cooperation.
  29. 29. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS: Factors of influence • Distance. Visibility. • Connections mostly bolted or welded • Tolerances required at fabrication and erection • Interior or exterior setting • Paint finish, corrosion resistance, fire protection • Access to detail to perform required finish • Degree of expression • Size and shape of structural elements
  30. 30. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS: Factors of influence • Distance. Visibility. • Connections mostly bolted or welded • Tolerances required at fabrication and erection • Interior or exterior setting • Paint finish, corrosion resistance, fire protection • Access to detail to perform required finish • Degree of expression • Size and shape of structural elements FORM FINISH FIT
  31. 31. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The importance of form … Vision realised Tortured landscape Canadian War Museum, Ottawa
  32. 32. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Ram’s Horn Sculpture Calgary Wind mitigation device!
  33. 33. OAA-Toronto-May2011
  34. 34. OAA-Toronto-May2011
  35. 35. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Montreal airport
  36. 36. OAA-Toronto-May2011 How? • Initiatives – AISC Guide (2003) – Ontario early doc (2003) – Quebec involvment (2004) – National interest (2005) • National committee – A President, a Secretary, Fabricators from every region, Regional staff, Guests • Roundtables – Montreal – Toronto – Vancouver
  37. 37. OAA-Toronto-May2011 National committee agreed that … • Not all AESS need be created equal. – Adopted the “Category Approach” • Distance should play a factor. – 6 m (20 ft) rule • Finish would play a factor. – finish OF the steel surface – finish ON the steel surface • Connection types are important differentiators. – bolted vs welded
  38. 38. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Zurich airport
  39. 39. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Telus Atrium, BC The new documents refer to new sections like elliptical tubes
  40. 40. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Mountain Equipment Coop Montreal
  41. 41. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Le Café des Éclusiers Le Café des Éclusiers Vieux Port de Montréal
  42. 42. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Not all AESS need be created equal. Bankers Hall Sculpture, Calgary University of Guelph, Science Building Exhibition Conference Center Ricoh Center, Arena
  43. 43. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Exquisite/expensive detailing Needs to be close enough to be seen, and even touched, to be warranted
  44. 44. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Distance should play a factor AESS Structure of CIBC Concourse Skylight Can anyone really see this?
  45. 45. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Distance should play a factor Edmonton City Hall, Alberta MUST this be filled? MUST this be realigned?
  46. 46. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Distance should play a factor (360o) CDP, Montreal
  47. 47. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Coating, protection system should play a factor Hi-gloss Medium gloss Thicker intumescent Thick intumescent Galvanized
  48. 48. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Connection types are important differentiators Canadian War Museum, Ottawa Waiward Steel Offices, Edmonton BCE Place, Toronto Bankers Hall, Calgary
  49. 49. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Bolts vs Welds The choice is there…. And the AESS is very different… Palais des Congrès de Montréal Lougheed Skytrain Station, Vancouver
  50. 50. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Round Tables made us realise that … • The Category Matrix was a winner. • The Sample Spec should be part of the Structural Steel Division (not a separate one). • The Sample Spec should be part of the Engineer’s spec, NOT the Architect’s! • Approximate cost premiums should be provided as a very rough guideline. • These documents should provide a means for good communication between the Architect, Engineer and Fabricator/Detailer/Erector.
  51. 51. OAA-Toronto-May2011 What?  Subdivision of Specification for Structural Steel  Appendix I of the CISC Code of Standard Practice  CISC Guide for specifying AESS  Category Matrix 740 Bel-Air, Montreal
  52. 52. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS: Factors of influence • Distance. Visibility. • Connections mostly bolted or welded • Tolerances required at fabrication and erection • Interior or exterior setting • Paint finish, corrosion resistance, fire protection • Access to detail to perform required finish • Degree of expression • Size and shape of structural elements SPEC + CODE GUIDE GUIDE MATRIX
  53. 53. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Approximating Cost Premiums • Discussions/roundtables made it apparent that Architects and Engineers wanted cost premiums provided • Cost premiums could begin to differentiate the AESS Categories • Fabricators wanted no part of having them included • As a compromise a “range” of extra cost has been included • The range is very wide and should only be used as a starting point for contractual discussions between the Architect, Engineer, Fabricator and Client
  54. 54. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Categories go from lowest at the right to highest at the left.
  55. 55. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Viewing distance is noted as the differentiating factor between the high and low end AESS Categories.
  56. 56. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Characteristics are listed from the most common/least expensive at the top to the more specialized at the bottom.
  57. 57. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Estimated cost premiums over Standard Structural Steel are noted at the bottom.
  58. 58. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Roof trusses for arenas, retail warehouses, canopies Cost premium: Low (20-60%) AESS 1
  59. 59. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 1 – Basic Elements Semiahmoo Library, Surrey, B.C. Ricoh Center, Arena
  60. 60. OAA-Toronto-May2011 1.1 Surface preparation to SSPC-SP 6 photo: Dry-Tec website - AESS 1 SP 15 SP 3 : Power Tool Cleaning SSPC-SP 6 for complete removal of visible oil, mill scale, rust, paint. SP 6 : Commercial Blast Cleaning
  61. 61. OAA-Toronto-May2011 1.1 Surface preparation to SSPC-SP 6 Dry-Tec AESS 1 Shot blast cleaning with the use of abrasives
  62. 62. OAA-Toronto-May2011 1.2 Sharp edges ground smooth photo: AISC AESS Guide AESS 1
  63. 63. OAA-Toronto-May2011 1.3 Continuous weld appearance AESS 1
  64. 64. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Not to cover welds AESS 1
  65. 65. OAA-Toronto-May2011 TC Bolts Hex bolts by default The side on which the bolt heads should appear can be specified …. not the rotation! 1.4 Standard structural bolts AESS 1
  66. 66. OAA-Toronto-May2011 TC Bolts 1.4 Standard structural bolts AESS 1 Court 1, Jarry Park, Montreal
  67. 67. OAA-Toronto-May2011 TC Bolts Or TC bolts 1.4 Standard structural bolts AESS 1
  68. 68. OAA-Toronto-May2011 TC Bolts Weld spatter prevents a quality/smooth finish as the imperfections will translate through the coatings. 1.5 Remove weld spatter AESS 1
  69. 69. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Retail and arch. bldgs viewed at a distance Cost premium: Low to Moderate (40-100%) AESS 2
  70. 70. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 2 – Feature Elements (>6m) Les Ailes, Montreal Dorval Airport, Montreal National Works Yard, Vancouver Lillis Business School, Oregon
  71. 71. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 2 2.1 Visual Samples (optional) 1. 3-D rendering; 2. Physical sample of surface preparation and welds; 3. First off inspection; First element fabricated for use in finished structure 4. Mockups; Scaled or full-scale. Mockups are to demonstrate aesthetic effects as well as qualities of materials and execution: a. May have finished surface b. Architect’s approval of mockups required; c. Retained until project is completed; d. Approved full-scale mockups may be part of work.
  72. 72. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3-D rendering • Ottawa airport
  73. 73. OAA-Toronto-May2011 First off inspection at Toronto Airport
  74. 74. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Approved first off inspection assembly One of the “wishbones” is the full scale first off inspected assembly. Can you tell which one? Pearson International Airport, Toronto
  75. 75. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 2 2.2 One-half standard fabrication tolerances
  76. 76. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 2 2.3 Fabrication marks not apparent
  77. 77. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 2 2.4 Welds uniform and smooth Zurich airport
  78. 78. OAA-Toronto-May2011 2.4 Welds uniform and smooth Brown Center, Baltimore, MD. Cannon Street, London National Works Yard, Vancouver 3 very different welded conditions, yet all are appropriate to the project
  79. 79. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Airports, shopping centres, hospitals, lobbies Cost premium: Moderate (60-150%) AESS 3
  80. 80. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 3 – Feature Elements (<6m) Edmonton International Airport OHare International Airport Ottawa International Airport Palais des Congrès de Montréal
  81. 81. OAA-Toronto-May2011 photo: AISC AESS Guide 3.1 Mill marks removed AESS 3
  82. 82. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.1 Mill marks removed AESS 3 Example of mill mark show through.
  83. 83. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.2 Butt and plug welds ground smooth and filled Right side shows groove weld ground smooth. photo: AISC AESS Guide AESS 3
  84. 84. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Plug welds ground smooth and filled if visible Niagara Casino AESS 3
  85. 85. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.3 HSS weld seam oriented for reduced visibility AESS 3
  86. 86. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.4 Cross sectional abutting surface aligned 3.5 Joint gap tolerances minimized AESS 3 photo: AISC AESS Guide
  87. 87. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.5 Joint gap tolerances minimised Lake City Way Skytrain Station, Vancouver Regan International Airport, Washington, DC Pritzker Pavilion, Chicago Required to accommodate complexity and alignment
  88. 88. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.5 Joint gap tolerances minimised Regan International Airport, Washington, DC Pritzker Pavilion, Chicago Required to accommodate complexity and alignment Art Gallery of Alberta, Edmonton AESS 3
  89. 89. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.6 All welded connections (optional) AESS 3 Requires skilled field welder. Millennium Park, Chicago
  90. 90. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.6 All welded connections (optional) AESS 3 Discrete bolts can be proposed as unobtrusive.
  91. 91. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3.6 All welded connections (optional) AESS 3
  92. 92. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Unobtrusive connections Even where design governs, there are alternates to field welding Seattle Public Library AESS 3
  93. 93. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Hidden connections Where site welding might be problematic, make parties aware that bolted connections may be effectively “hidden” Media Tower, Dundas Square, Toronto AESS 3
  94. 94. OAA-Toronto-May2011
  95. 95. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Hidden connections This hidden connection must also be weatherproof Media Tower, Dundas Square, Toronto AESS 3
  96. 96. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Showcase or dominant elements, sculptures Cost premium: High (150-250%) AESS 4
  97. 97. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 4 - Showcase or dominant elements BCE Place, Toronto CDP, Montreal Wells Fargo Bridge, Salt Lake City
  98. 98. OAA-Toronto-May2011 4.1 HSS seam not apparent AESS 4 CDP Building, Montreal
  99. 99. OAA-Toronto-May2011 4.2 Welds contoured and blended Very expensivephoto: AISC AESS Guide AESS 4
  100. 100. OAA-Toronto-May2011 4.3 Surfaces filled and sanded AESS 4 Niagara Casino St-Pierre Passage, Montreal
  101. 101. OAA-Toronto-May2011 4.3 Surfaces filled and sanded AESS 4 Rose Center New York City Polshek
  102. 102. OAA-Toronto-May2011 4.4 Weld show-through minimized photo: AISC AESS Guide AESS 4
  103. 103. OAA-Toronto-May2011 This section is for those who have unusual requirements or are confident enough to create their own set of requirements AESS C
  104. 104. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Status of the New AESS Documents • Completed and available for download at are: – Matrix – Sample Spec – Code of Standard Practice – References – AESS Guide
  105. 105. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Re-used / Sustainable Steel • An increasing number of projects are making use of re-used steel to be sustainable • Some of these projects choose to leave the steel exposed to “celebrate” its re-use • A Custom spec will be required for such projects as the demounting, transportation, re-erection of the steel will be unique and vary by project
  106. 106. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Angus Technopole • Project used an old steam locomotive shed • Repurposed for offices and a grocery store • Most of the steel was left in its original condition to show off the reuse • Other was “cleaned up and repainted, leaving the original rivets exposed.
  107. 107. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Rivets
  108. 108. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Tohu Steel beams saved from demolition at the Port of Montreal were reused to support the roof.
  109. 109. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Re-used steel properties 1. Do you have the old mill certificate? 2. Have you tried to check the steel as “unidentified steel”? • If yes to either question, proceed to re-use. • If not, perform test for physical and/or chemical properties. Cost: 500-1000$/test
  110. 110. OAA-Toronto-May2011 University of Edmonton Triffo Hall 111
  111. 111. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The 740 Bel-Air : LEED Gold Joists from previous building were dismantled, stored and reused. Consortium: ABCP, Beauchamp Bourbeau, Busby & Assoc.
  112. 112. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The AESS Guide: • The illustrated Guide to assist Architects and Engineers in understanding the new specification documents is nearing completion • This part of the presentation will walk you through the COMPLETED version of the Guide!
  113. 113. OAA-Toronto-May2011
  114. 114. OAA-Toronto-May2011 This illustrated guide is designed as a supplement to the new set of AESS Specification Documents created by the CISC National Committee over the period of 2005 to the present time. So let’s take a walk through the Guide!
  115. 115. OAA-Toronto-May2011 An Elaboration of the Spec and text based documents Additional value added detailing and decision making information
  116. 116. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Additional value added detailing and decision making information
  117. 117. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The Development of the new AESS Documents Focussed on translating the PRIMARY FACTORS OF INFLUENCE Into specifications and codes that could be easily used and incorporated into practice. ~ Distance and Visibility (if you could not see it up close or touch it, finish requirements could be softened) ~ Connections mostly bolted or welded (different aesthetics requiring differing levels of finish) ~ Tolerances required at fabrication and erection (different as a function of scope and complexity) ~ Access to detail to perform required finish (greater concern for workmanship may mean altering the detail or its location to allow access for different types of tools) ~ Degree of expression (complexity of structure and connections) ~ Size and shape of structural elements (W sections and HSS have different detailing requirements and their use infers a different approach to detailing and finish) ~ Interior or exterior setting (weathering issues, need to fire protect, potential for impact damage) ~ Paint finish, corrosion resistance, fire protection (depending on the relative thickness of the finish material, more or less care may be required when preparing the surface, edges and welding of the steel
  118. 118. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The core idea! FORM, FIT & FINISH Two “TREES” – both AESS – each quite different from the other – so why would the AESS Specification be even remotely the same????
  119. 119. OAA-Toronto-May2011 The generation of the overall approach to the new set of CISC AESS Documents is based upon the key idea of the Category “Matrix”
  121. 121. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS1 – BASIC ELEMENTS is the first step above Standard Structural Steel. This type of application would be suitable for “basic” elements, which require enhanced workmanship. This type of exposed structure could be found in roof trusses for arenas, warehouses and canopies and should only require a low cost premium in the range of 20% to 60% due to its relatively large viewing distance as well as the lower profile nature of the architectural spaces in which it is used.
  122. 122. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Roof trusses for arenas, retail warehouses, canopies Cost premium: Low (20-60%)
  123. 123. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 2 – FEATURE ELEMENTS includes structure that is intended to be viewed at a Distance > 6 m. It is suitable for “feature” elements that will be viewed at a distance greater than six meters. The process requires basically good fabrication practices with enhanced treatment of weld, connection and fabrication detail, tolerances for gaps, and copes. This type of AESS might be found in retail and architectural applications where a low to moderate cost premium in the range of 40% to 100% over the cost of Standard Structural Steel would be expected.
  124. 124. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Retail and arch. bldgs viewed at a distance Cost premium: Low to Moderate (40-100%)
  125. 125. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Includes structures that will be viewed at a distance ≤ 6 m. The Category would be suitable for “feature” elements – where the designer is comfortable allowing the viewer to see the art of metalworking. The welds should be generally smooth but visible and some grind marks would be acceptable. Tolerances must be tighter than normal standards. AESS 3 – FEATURE ELEMENTS As this structure is normally viewed closer than six meters it might also frequently be subject to touch by the public, therefore warranting a smoother and more uniform finish and appearance. This type of structure could be found in airports, shopping centres, hospitals or lobbies and could be expected to incur a moderate cost premium that could range from 60% to 150% over Standard Structural Steel.
  126. 126. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Airports, shopping centres, hospitals, lobbies Cost premium: Moderate (60-150%)
  127. 127. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 4 – SHOWCASE ELEMENTS or “dominant” elements is used where the designer intends that the form is the only feature showing in an element. All welds are ground and filled edges are ground square and true. All surfaces are sanded and filled. Tolerances of these fabricated forms are more stringent, generally to half of standard tolerance for structural steel. All of the surfaces would be “glove” smooth. The cost premium of these elements would be high and could range from 100% to 250% over the cost of Standard Structural Steel – completely as a function of the nature of the details, complexity of construction and selected finish. Brookfield Place
  128. 128. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Showcase or dominant elements, sculptures Cost premium: High (150-250%)
  129. 129. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS C – CUSTOM ELEMENTS was created to allow for a completely custom selection of any of the Characteristics or attributes that were used to define the other Categories. It would allow complete flexibility in the design of the steel, but would therefore require a high level of communication amongst the Architect, Engineer and Fabricator. The premium for this type of AESS could range from 20% to 250% over regular steel. A wide range may seem odd for “custom” elements, but the lower bound of this Category also includes specialty reused steel for sustainable purposes, and steel that might be purposefully less refined in its Characteristics.
  130. 130. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Bow Encana
  131. 131. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Canadian Museum for Human Rights
  133. 133. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 2 – FEATURE ELEMENTS
  134. 134. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 3 – FEATURE ELEMENTS
  135. 135. OAA-Toronto-May2011
  136. 136. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS 4 – FEATURE ELEMENTS
  138. 138. OAA-Toronto-May2011 WORKING OUTSIDE OF CANADA
  139. 139. OAA-Toronto-May2011 WORKING OUTSIDE OF CANADA There even are limits on the kind of workmanship that can be expected for the likes of Herzog and de Meuron and Arup on high profile projects such as the Birds Nest!
  140. 140. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Beijing International Airport
  141. 141. OAA-Toronto-May2011 What about cleaning and maintenance?
  142. 142. OAA-Toronto-May2011
  144. 144. OAA-Toronto-May2011 EXTERIOR VS INTERIOR FINISHES PAINT SYSTEMS • Water, snow and weathering are obvious issues here. Steel must be detailed so that moisture does not get trapped inside, causing the structure to rust out. • Some details create ledges that will trap snow and meltwater. • Some arrangements will also collect dirt and provide roosts for pigeons. • The paint type and finish MUST be known. • The level of gloss will either mask or reveal minute imperfections.
  145. 145. OAA-Toronto-May2011 SHOP VS SITE PAINTING PRIMERS INTUMESCENT COATINGS • Quality is better with shop painting • Shop painting is less costly • Shop painted steel requires better care and handling during transportation, site staging and erection • Anticipate that some touch up work will be required • A BIG caution note here! • Each type of final finish requires a DIFFERENT primer • Incompatible primers must be removed • Especially important with intumescent fire protection. • Some steel does not need a primer – cost and environmental savings!
  146. 146. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Intumescent coatings • Acrylic Com./arch. applications, mostly interior, field applied – water based • longer to dry, more fragile, but “greener”, for interior – solvant based • faster, most common use, robust, mostly interior setting but also exterior • Epoxy Industrial applications, ext. or int., shop applied • very fast to dry, very resistant (also anti-corrosion)
  147. 147. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Intumescent coatings have become a widely used way of expanding the application of exposed steel, but have major ramifications when specifying the level of fit and form on a project!
  148. 148. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Robert R. McEwen Hospital, Toronto (Atrium)
  149. 149. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Tubes (HSS 6”X6”X3/8”) Minutes 60 90 120 (mils*) Thermo-Sorb 46 123 217 Nullifire S605 127 NR NR Nullifire S606 107 292 NR Albi TF 119 NR 431 AD FireFilm III 130 188 257 Sprayfilm III 97 173 280 * 1 mil = 1/1000th of an inch
  150. 150. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Columns (W10X49) Minutes 60 120 (mils) Thermo-Sorb 42 204 Albi TF 55 310 A/D Fire Film III 55 NR Nullifire S605 59 215 Spray Film WB III 56 177
  151. 151. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Le Casse-Tête 1213, rue Ontario est Montréal • Rating: 1 hr • Cost of material: $6.50 • Labour: $3.82 Sherwin Williams
  152. 152. OAA-Toronto-May2011 468 rue St-Jean, Montreal • Fire rating: 2 hrs • Material: $12.75 • Preparation and application: $14.75 Sherwin Williams The column is actually cast-iron!
  153. 153. OAA-Toronto-May2011 UQAM Kimberlay Pavillon 145 President Kennedy Montréal Fire rating: 2 hours Material: $15.00 /sqft Application: $15.00 / sqft Sherwin Williams A thicker wall HSS would have likely reduced cost!
  155. 155. OAA-Toronto-May2011 When you need corrosion protection … • Galvanizing • Metalizing • Paint systems • Intumescent coatings (epoxy) • Weathering steel • Stainless steel
  156. 156. OAA-Toronto-May2011 THE ARCHITECT SAYS: But it looks so cool! I want it as a FINISH – can you make it look consistent please?? THE ENGINEER AND FABRICATOR SAY ABOUT GALVANIZED STEEL: It was NEVER meant to be a “FINISH”! It is a corrosion protection system!
  157. 157. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Corporation Corbec Hot-dip galvanizing is a chemical process, where iron and zinc connect.
  158. 158. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Differences between heats!
  159. 159. OAA-Toronto-May2011 What impacts the final look of galvanized steel? • Impurities, presence of certain chemicals, especially silicon • Steel origin from several different heats • Thickness of material: too thin, too different • Access to all surfaces being dipped • Size of pieces of steel
  160. 160. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Calgary Water LEEDTM Gold
  161. 161. OAA-Toronto-May2011 ITHQ building in Montreal Lapointe Magne / AEdifica Galvanized steel and glass for improved energy efficiency at the new double façade. ITHQ
  162. 162. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Kuujjuaq Airport, Nunavik The vertical peripheral steel tubes are used for stabilizing the permafrost. Fournier, Gersovitz, Moss All the steel was galvanized (inside and outside).
  163. 163. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Shop When exterior setting requires fire-protection and corrosion resistance Shop applied Epoxy based Intumescent Coating
  164. 164. OAA-Toronto-May2011 OCAD Support legs covered with an epoxy intumescent coating.
  165. 165. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Vancouver Convention Centre Epoxy coating can also be used for indoor application.
  166. 166. OAA-Toronto-May2011 WEATHERING STEEL How do we detail for a material that changes its colour and finish hue over its life; can bleed onto the concrete below; is durable in some respects but can also be scratched?
  167. 167. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Most common application: BRIDGES Weathering steel contains copper and nickel, is less porous than carbon steels, and creates a protective patina after about 2 years
  168. 168. OAA-Toronto-May2011 • It “needs” wet/dry cycles to develop the patina • No residues should remain on the steel • Not advisable for a roof • Colour is not completely predictable but almost always beautiful! • Weathering steel will stain, mostly in the first two years;
  169. 169. OAA-Toronto-May2011 John Deere Head office Moline, IL 1964 Weathering steel (Cor-Ten) outside and inside building Architect: Eero Saarinen
  170. 170. OAA-Toronto-May2011 ABCP Office - Québec
  171. 171. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Robson Robson Square Domes are made of stainless steel
  172. 172. OAA-Toronto-May2011 GENERAL ISSUES FOR CONNECTIONS MOCK UPS – WHEN AND HOW THE SELECTION OF CONNECTION TYPES GREATLY IMPACTS THE DETAILING AND THEREFORE THE AESS CATEGORY LEVEL • Mock ups can be very expensive • Fabricators need to be compensated to create these • Large mock ups can delay the project • Remember to examine the mock up at the same distance as the final piece will be viewed!
  173. 173. OAA-Toronto-May2011 3-D rendering Ottawa Airport • A digital rendering from the Fabricator was more than adequate • Architectural renderings can be used to discuss finish options as well
  174. 174. OAA-Toronto-May2011 First off inspection at Toronto Airport
  175. 175. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Approved first off inspection assembly One of the “wishbones” is the full scale first off inspected assembly. Can you tell which one? Pearson International Airport, Toronto
  176. 176. OAA-Toronto-May2011 SELECTING A CONNECTION TYPE BOLTED CONNECTIONS – WHEN TO USE • A huge impact on detailing! • Impacts fabrication costs • Impacts erection and constructability • Impacts timing of the project • Impacts transportation • How big are the pieces • How much can be assembled in the shop? • Easier for fabrication • Can be less expensive • Easier for site erection • Still must be accurate in AESS for proper fit • Makes the steel look more “technical” – so is this the look that you want?
  177. 177. OAA-Toronto-May2011 WELDED CONNECTIONS TUBULAR STEEL • Are typically more expensive • Better results if done in the shop • More difficult to do on site, but possible • Cleaner appearance • Difficult geometries not as hard today with new CNC cutting methods • Quality depends on the Fabricator • Very popular in AESS • Can be welded or bolted • Very different overall appearance between welding and bolting • Can be weight savings when using HSS • When galvanizing the interior of the tube must be coated • Can be coating/paint savings on some applications (less surface area)
  178. 178. OAA-Toronto-May2011 CAST CONNECTIONS • Castings have been used in very special projects with odd geometries • Special castings will require special testing for strength, particularly if the connection is large • Castings can ease the difficulty of connection of multiple tubes • Castings are being mass produced for seismic connections
  179. 179. OAA-Toronto-May2011 CDP Building
  180. 180. OAA-Toronto-May2011 When can you justify using castings? • Stress concentration • Labour intensive (labour $ > 4x material $) • Repetition (the mould is expensive) • Access to a caster and testing • Collaboration from the engineer! • Aesthetic requirement
  181. 181. OAA-Toronto-May2011 DESIGNING FOR CURVES,CUTS AND SPECIALTY ITEMS BENDING ELLIPTICAL TUBES AESS is making use of a number of new technologies and products. This section will expand upon these to make Architects and Engineers more aware of these new possibilities so that they can make a more educated decision when selecting their Fabricator and working with them on detailing the design. • Steel can be bent • Amount of bend a function of the shape • Hollow sections are limited as they can suffer buckling • W sections can also experience web deformations • “Hard Way” vs “Easy Way” for bending • Not all Fabricators do bending • Needs to be contracted out • Can increase costs depending on location of bender • These are new on the market • More common in Europe • Mostly an aesthetic choice, ratio 2:1 • Narrow profile makes them slimmer when placed in front of glazing • Similar connection issues as tubes
  182. 182. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Mechanical energy Heat
  183. 183. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Strong axis Weak axis
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  185. 185. OAA-Toronto-May2011 HOLE PUNCHING AND DRILLING SHEARING, PLASMA CUTTING, TORCH, ETC. • New machinery can do almost anything! • Check to see the state of your Fabricator’s shop and equipment •Modern equipment has improved and automated these processes •Accuracy is essential for AESS connections and ease of site erection
  186. 186. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Round holes and straight lines are the least expensive way of creating openings.
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  188. 188. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Erection & Challenges ~ Best Practices ~ Transportation Issues ~ Care in Handling ~ Erection Issues ~ Staging and Site Area Requirements ~ Steel and Wood ~ Steel and Glass Also included! Sections on:
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  193. 193. OAA-Toronto-May2011 CISC ADVANTAGE STEEL MAGAZINE Steel and Glass Issue No. 29 Steel and Wood Issue No. 30
  194. 194. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Architect Engineer Fabricator Who?
  195. 195. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Architect Engineer Fabricator Santiago Calatrava Wayne Baigent GUIDE FOR SPECIFYING AESS SAMPLE AESS SPEC FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICE
  196. 196. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Architect Engineer Fabricator Santiago Calatrava Wayne Baigent
  197. 197. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Design process implications • Architects and engineers have to talk to decide on AESS Categories. • AESS Categories need to appear on all contract documents as per Spec. • We typically expect that there will be 2 Categories specificed per structure – ex. AESS 2 upper portion of atrium, AESS 3 for the lower portion • Fabricators to bid on Engineering documents and the Categories specified.
  198. 198. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Fabrication and Erection Implications • Categories specified infer sequencing, cost and constructability issues. • Higher level of care as provided in Code of Standard Practice. • AESS Categories to appear on all Shop and Erection drawings.
  199. 199. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Acknowledgements of committee • Walter Koppelaar, Walters Inc., Ontario Region - Chairman • Sylvie Boulanger, CISC, Quebec Region - Secretary • Peter Boyle, MBS Steel, Ontario Region • Paul Collins, Collins Industries, Alberta Region • Michel Lafrance, Structal-Heavy Construction, Quebec Region • Graham Langford, Weldfab, Central Region • Rob McCammon, IWL Steel Fabricators, Central Region • Jim McLagan, Canron BC, BC Region • Mike Payne, Waiward Steel, Alberta Region • Rob Third, George Third and Son, BC Region • Harrison Wilson, Ocean Steel, Atlantic Region • Terri Meyer Boake, University of Waterloo - Guest • Suja John, CISC, Ontario Region • Alan Lock, CISC, Atlantic Region • Peter Timler, CISC, Western Region
  200. 200. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Acknowledgements of roundtables • Alain Bergeron, ABCP architecture • Terri Meyer Boake, University of Waterloo • Pierre Delisle, Pierre Delisle architecte • Michael Heeney, Bing Thorn Architects • Martin Nielsen, Busby Perkins & Will • Jacques White, Université Laval School of Architecture • Peter Buchanan, Stantec • Guy Carrier, CIMA+ • François Deslauriers, SDKLBB • Jean Lacoursière, Mesar Consultants • Jeff Leibgott, SBSA Structural Consultants • Sol Lorenzo, Genivar • Andrew Metten, Bush Bohlman • Bob Neville, Read Jones Christoffersen • Stéphane Rivest, Bureau d'études spécialisées (BÉS)
  201. 201. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Appendix 1 - CISC Code of Standard Practice Appendix 2 - The Matrix Appendix 3 - Sample AESS Section in Structural Steel Specification The AESS Guide Now available for download at : The guide will also include, for convenience copies of:
  202. 202. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Coming November 2011! Looks at AESS as well as detailed chapters on -Timber - Glazing - Castings - Curving - Diagrids - Sustainability
  203. 203. OAA-Toronto-May2011 AESS is all about communication, care … and the little matrix.
  204. 204. OAA-Toronto-May2011 Terri Meyer Boake: Sylvie Boulanger: Thank you! Merci! Comments and suggestions are welcome: