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TARUN B PATEL
ME ENERGY ENGINEERING
140190739009
GUIDED BY – Dr K V Modi
GEC VALSAD
PRE-TREATMENT OF FEEDSTOCK
FOR
ENHANCE...
CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Methods used to assess pre-treatment
• Mechanical pre-treatment
• Thermal pre-treatment
• Chemic...
INTRODUCTION
• AD
• substrates for biogas production
• Ligno cellulosic substrates very slow to break down
• Breaking down...
CONTI…
CONTI…
• pre-treatment principles and techniques
METHODS USED TO ASSESS PRE-TREATMENT
• Chemical analysis
• Batch test
• Continuous AD
MECHANICAL PRE-TREATMENT
THERMAL PRE-TREATMENT
• substrate is heated (typically 125 to 190 C) under pressure
• held at that temperature for up to o...
CONTI…
• biomass is heated in an inert or
nitrogen atmosphere at
temperatures of 200-3000C
• mild pyrolysis
• improve the ...
CONTI… Torrefaction process
CONTI…
CONTI…
• hemicellulose is removed
and the cell wall in
biomass is destroyed
• scanning electron
microscope (SEM) images
of...
CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENT
• used to achieve the destruction of the organic
compounds
• acids, alkalis or oxidants
• AD genera...
CONTI…
• ALKALI PRETREATMENT
• utilize lower temperatures and pressures
• carried out at ambient conditions
• but pretreat...
CONTI…
CONTI…
PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALI PRETREATED BIOMASS
• NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse
• Scanning electr...
CONTI…
FTIR spectrum of native and alkali pretreated sugarcane tops
• carbonyl band at 1735/cm indicating removal of hemic...
CONTI…
BIOLOGICAL PRE-TREATMENT
• Biological pretreatment includes
• both anaerobic and aerobic methods,
• Fungal treatment
• add...
CONTI…
ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL PRETREATMENT
pH must be between 6.5 and 8
pH value lie between 4 and 6
temperatures from 30 to ...
CONTI…
• FUNGAL PRETREATMENT
• associated with the use of fungal species
• produce enzymes capable of biodegradation of
su...
CONTI…
Effect of white-rot fungus on the Yard trimmings
CONTI…
Effect of oyster mushroom fungal on Shorea wood
REFERENCES
[1] Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey,Pretreatment of Biomass: Processes
and technologies, 1st Edition,Elsevier,...
CONTI…
[6] Jia Zhao, Yi Zheng , Yebo Li,“Fungal pretreatment of yard trimmings for
enhancement of methane yield from solid...
Pretreatment of biomass
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Pretreatment of biomass

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this ppt based on pretratmets for biomass before its used,types of various process,

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Pretreatment of biomass

  1. 1. TARUN B PATEL ME ENERGY ENGINEERING 140190739009 GUIDED BY – Dr K V Modi GEC VALSAD PRE-TREATMENT OF FEEDSTOCK FOR ENHANCED BIOFUEL PRODUCTION
  2. 2. CONTENTS • Introduction • Methods used to assess pre-treatment • Mechanical pre-treatment • Thermal pre-treatment • Chemical pre-treatment • Biological pre-treatment
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • AD • substrates for biogas production • Ligno cellulosic substrates very slow to break down • Breaking down this lignocellulose complex is the key to biogas production • pretreatment technologies • AD faster, reduction of the retention time, increase biogas yield, make use of new and/or locally available substrates, prevent processing problems such as high electricity requirements
  4. 4. CONTI…
  5. 5. CONTI… • pre-treatment principles and techniques
  6. 6. METHODS USED TO ASSESS PRE-TREATMENT • Chemical analysis • Batch test • Continuous AD
  7. 7. MECHANICAL PRE-TREATMENT
  8. 8. THERMAL PRE-TREATMENT • substrate is heated (typically 125 to 190 C) under pressure • held at that temperature for up to one hour • pressure cookers, autoclaves or microwave heaters, Reactor. • Dry substrates need additional water before thermal treatment. • Carried with chemicals or in combination with mechanical shearing. • increased biogas yields of 20 to 30% for energy crops • effective up to a certain temperature
  9. 9. CONTI… • biomass is heated in an inert or nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures of 200-3000C • mild pyrolysis • improve the properties of raw biomass • Main product is the solid, torrefied biomass • industrial furnaces, such as boilers, gasifiers, and blast furnaces TORREFACTION
  10. 10. CONTI… Torrefaction process
  11. 11. CONTI…
  12. 12. CONTI… • hemicellulose is removed and the cell wall in biomass is destroyed • scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of Cryptomeria japonica • at 300C for 1 h • inclusions in the thick- walled fibers. • Improves the grindability • reduces the amount of energy
  13. 13. CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENT • used to achieve the destruction of the organic compounds • acids, alkalis or oxidants • AD generally requires an adjustment of the pH by increasing alkalinity • positive effect on substrates rich in lignin
  14. 14. CONTI… • ALKALI PRETREATMENT • utilize lower temperatures and pressures • carried out at ambient conditions • but pretreatment time is in hours or days rather than minutes or seconds • Alkali addition causes swelling of lignocelluloses and partial lignin solubilisation. • carried out with different alkalis • Lime or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) • Economically unattractive due to the high costs of alkalis • useful for acidic and lignin rich substrates
  15. 15. CONTI…
  16. 16. CONTI… PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALI PRETREATED BIOMASS • NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse • Scanning electron micrographs • With alkaline pretreatment, there is 82% reduction in lignin content
  17. 17. CONTI… FTIR spectrum of native and alkali pretreated sugarcane tops • carbonyl band at 1735/cm indicating removal of hemicellulose • aromatic ring stretch at 1590/cm indicating delignification.
  18. 18. CONTI…
  19. 19. BIOLOGICAL PRE-TREATMENT • Biological pretreatment includes • both anaerobic and aerobic methods, • Fungal treatment • addition of specific enzymes • biological pretreatment can take place at low temperature without using chemicals • slower than non-biological methods
  20. 20. CONTI… ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL PRETREATMENT pH must be between 6.5 and 8 pH value lie between 4 and 6 temperatures from 30 to 50 C
  21. 21. CONTI… • FUNGAL PRETREATMENT • associated with the use of fungal species • produce enzymes capable of biodegradation of substrates like lignin, hemicelluloses and polyphenols. • White and soft-rot fungi were found capable of biodegradation of lignocellulosic material • white rot fungus was most effective in pretreatment process • not been carried out at large scale.
  22. 22. CONTI… Effect of white-rot fungus on the Yard trimmings
  23. 23. CONTI… Effect of oyster mushroom fungal on Shorea wood
  24. 24. REFERENCES [1] Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey,Pretreatment of Biomass: Processes and technologies, 1st Edition,Elsevier, 2014. [2] www.iea-biogas.net/Pretreatment of feedstock for enhanced biogas production. [3] http://www.btgworld.com/en/rtd/technologies/torrefaction. [4] Fayyaz Ali Shah,Qaisar Mahmood,Naim Rashid,Arshid Pervez,Iftikhar Ahmad Raja,Mohammad Maroof Shah, “Co-digestion, pre-treatment and digester designfor enhanced methanogenesis”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42 (2015),627-642. [5] Javkhlan Ariunbaatar,Antonio Panico,Giovanni Esposito,Francesco Pirozzi,Piet N.L. Lens “Pretreatment methods to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste”, Applied Energy, 123(2014), 143-153.
  25. 25. CONTI… [6] Jia Zhao, Yi Zheng , Yebo Li,“Fungal pretreatment of yard trimmings for enhancement of methane yield from solid-state anaerobic digestion”,Bioresource Technology, 156 (2014),202 - 208. [7] Rudianto Amirta, Elisa Herawati, Wiwin Suwinarti,Takashi Watanabe, “Two-steps Utilization of ShoreaWoodWaste Biomass for The Production of Oyster Mushroom and Biogas - A zero waste approach”, Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 19 ( 2016 ), 149-153. [8] Salma A. Iqbal, Shahinur Rahaman, Mizanur Rahman, Abu Yousuf, “Anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste to produce biogas”, Procedia Engineering, 90 ( 2014 ),657- 662.

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