Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
An Experimental Investigation on Performance
and Emission Parameters using WTO – Diesel
blend with Additives in a Diesel E...
Contents
• INTRODUCTION
• LITERATURE REVIEW
• OBSERVATIONS OF LITERATURE REVIEW
• RESEARCH GAP
• PROBLEM DEFINITION
• OBJE...
Introduction
• Increase Of Automobiles.
• Increase of pollutants such as CO, HC, NOx, PM etc.
• Limited resources of fossi...
10
Research paper
Title
Md Nurun Nabi, Md Shamim Akhter, Md Atiqur Rahman,
“Waste trans- former oil as an alternative fuel...
11
Research paper
Title
Pritinika Behera, S.Murugan, “Combustion, performance
and emission parameters of used transformer ...
12
Research paper
Title
Pritinika Behera, S.Murugan,G. Nagarajan “Dual fuel
operation of used transformer oil with acetyle...
13
Research paper
Title
S. Prasanna Raj Yadav, C.G. Saravanan, M. Kannan,
“Influence of injection timing on DI diesel engi...
14
Research paper
Title
K. Varatharajan, M. Cheralathan, R. Velraj c, “Mitigation of
NOx emissions from a jatropha biodies...
15
Research paper
Title
J. Devaraj, Y. Robinson, P. Ganapathi, “Experimental
investigation of performance, emission and co...
Observations of Literature reviewed
• Biodiesel use as an alternative fuel in Diesel engine.
• Jatropha, Mahua seed, Cocon...
Conti…
• FTIR identify the basic groups compositional to
examine suitability as a diesel engine fuel.
• Diesel engine show...
Research Gap
• Little work in the area of Waste Oil as an alternative fuel
in Diesel engines.
• Higher exhaust gas emissio...
Problem Definition
• From the literature reviewed WTO can be used as a
replacement of Diesel in Diesel engine.
• Performan...
Conti…
• Use of WTO reduces the waste and it can be proved as
a better alternative fuel with availability which also helps...
Objectives
• The main objective of this study is improve the fuel
characteristics of WTO blend by adding additives.
• Stud...
Conti…
• To develop experimental set up for the analysis of
performance and emissions of WTO.
• To study the performance a...
Methodology
To identify best concentration of fuel blend based on the performance and emission
parameters.
Observing the e...
WTO (Waste Transformer Oil)
Pure Transformer oil Waste transformer Oil
24
Group Compound of WTO (FTIR)
26
Conti…
27
Properties of WTO
Sr no Properties WTO Diesel
1 Gross Calorific Value (cal/gm) 11357.05 13054.38
2 Specific Gravity 0.862 ...
Material and Methods
Fuel Blend name Blend Ratio
Diesel WT10 90%Diesel+10%WTO
Waste Transformer Oil
(WTO)
WT10+200ppm
PPDA...
Additives used
DIETHYL ETHER P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
31
Properties of Various Blends
32
Sample no
WT1
0
WT10+200
ppm PPDA
WT10+500
ppm PPDA
WT10DE0
5
WT10DE10
Calorific value
(MJ...
Experimental Setup
33
Actual photograph of set up
34
Components of Experimental Set up
• Diesel engine
• Fuel Consumption Measurement
• Air Flow measurement
• Exhaust Gas Anal...
Diesel engine
Engine name Kirlosker
Engine no. 10.1012/1100662
Cylinder number 1
RPM 1500
BHP 5
KW 3.7
Fuel injection syst...
Fuel Consumption measurement
37
Burrete
Air Flow Measurement
38
U tube
manometer
Air
manifoild
Orifice
(0.017m dia)
Exhaust Gas Analyzer
39
Specifications of Five gas analyser
Gases Measured O2, CO2, CO, NOx, HC
Principle Non dispersive I...
Temperature Measurement
• Resistance temperature detector (RTD) is used for
sensing the low temperatures (Range: 0-2000C)....
Engine Speed Measurement
• The proximity sensor is mounted below the engine
coupling for measuring the speed.
• The sensor...
Electrical Dynamometer
42
Specifications of Electrical
Dynamometer
TYPE A C Generator
OUTPUT 7.5 KVA
VOLTS 230
Ph 1
AMPS 3...
Control Panel
43
Temperatures
Engine speed Voltage
Current
Load knob
Parameters to study
Performance Parameters Emission Parameters
Brake Power Carbon dioxide
Brake Thermal Efficiency Carbon ...
45
46
47
50
52
53
55
Conclusion
• WTO can be used as alternative fuel. The diesel engine run with the WT10 blend
with additives without any mod...
Future Scope
• Catalytic cracking process will employ to enhance the properties of WTO. So,
higher percentage of WTO can b...
Paper Published
[1].Tarun B Patel, Prof K D Panchal, Dr A S Shah, “A Technical Review Paper
on Use of WTO (Waste Transform...
References
PAPER
[1].Rao PV, “Experimental investigations on the influence of properties of jatropha biodiesel on performa...
[8].Wail M. Adaileh and Khaled S. AlQdah, “Performance of Diesel Engine Fuelled by a Biodiesel Extracted
from a Waste Cock...
[16].G.R. Kannan, R. Karvembu, R. Anand, “Effect of metal based additive on performance emission and combustion characteri...
•THANK YOU
62
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Parameters using WTO – Diesel blend with Additives in a Diesel Engine

this ppt for the Dissertation work for the An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Parameters using WTO – Diesel blend with Additives in a Diesel Engine,contain all detail anlysis with result.

  • Be the first to comment

An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Parameters using WTO – Diesel blend with Additives in a Diesel Engine

  1. 1. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Parameters using WTO – Diesel blend with Additives in a Diesel Engine GUIDED BY Prof K D Panchal Dr A S Shah PREPARED BY Tarun B Patel 140190739009 ME Energy Engineering GEC Valsad
  2. 2. Contents • INTRODUCTION • LITERATURE REVIEW • OBSERVATIONS OF LITERATURE REVIEW • RESEARCH GAP • PROBLEM DEFINITION • OBJECTIVE • METHODOLOGY • WTO • DEGRATIONS OF WTO • GROUP COMPOUNDS OF WTO BY FTIR • PROPERTIES OF WTO • MATERIAL AND METHODS • ADDITIVES USED • PROPERTIES OF BLENDS • EXPERIMENTAL SETUP • RESULTS AND ANALYSIS • CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE • PAPER PUBLISHED • REFERENCES 2
  3. 3. Introduction • Increase Of Automobiles. • Increase of pollutants such as CO, HC, NOx, PM etc. • Limited resources of fossil fuels. • Alternative fuel • BIO-DIESEL, ETHANOL, METHANOL, HYDROGEN, NATURAL GAS, VEGETABLE OIL etc. • NEED FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS. • Greenhouse Gas Emissions • Air Quality • Depletion Of Fossil Fuels • National Security 3
  4. 4. 10 Research paper Title Md Nurun Nabi, Md Shamim Akhter, Md Atiqur Rahman, “Waste trans- former oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine", Procedia Engineering, 56 (2013), 401-406. Engine specifications water cooled, single cylinder, 4- stroke, 4.476 kW, 1800 rpm DI diesel engine. Conclusions • WTO used as an alternative fuel. • viscosity of oil 10.1cSt which was higher than diesel, Calorific value was 6% lower than diesel, flash fire points were 1400C and 1450C and cetane number was 42. • BTE for WT10, WT15, and WT20 were found 21.37%, 21.8%, 21.8% where diesel was 19.2%. • BSFC found higher due to high heating value. • EGT were higher due to more resistance time and higher viscosity.
  5. 5. 11 Research paper Title Pritinika Behera, S.Murugan, “Combustion, performance and emission parameters of used transformer oil and its diesel blends in a DI diesel engine”, Fuel, 104 (2013), 147- 154. Engine specifications single cylinder, 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm, four stroke, air cooled, DI diesel engine Conclusions • UTO10 to UTO 60 blend • The ignition delay for the UTO and its diesel blends is shorter by about 1–3 0CA compared to that of diesel in the entire range of operation. • The HC and CO emissions for the UTO and its diesel blends are marginally higher than those of diesel operation at full load. • The NOx emission is higher for the UTO–diesel blends than diesel at full load. • EGT were higher due to more resistance time and higher viscosity.
  6. 6. 12 Research paper Title Pritinika Behera, S.Murugan,G. Nagarajan “Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine”,Energy Conversion and Management, 87 (2014), 840-847. Engine specifications single cylinder, 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm, four stroke, air cooled, direct injection diesel engine Conclusions • Acetylene was inducted as a primary fuel at flow rates 132 g/h, 198 g/h, 264 g/h and 330 g/h along with the air By the induction of acetylene, • The thermal efficiency increases compared to that of diesel and the UTO operation. • The UTO results in a higher exhaust temperature compared to that of diesel at maximum brake power. It is reduced in the dual fuel mode by about 23.7% for the UTO at maximum brake. • NOx emission for UTO with acetylene operation is lower by about 10% than that of diesel-acetylene operation
  7. 7. 13 Research paper Title S. Prasanna Raj Yadav, C.G. Saravanan, M. Kannan, “Influence of injection timing on DI diesel engine characteristics fueled with waste transformer oil”, Alexandria Engineering Journal, (2015). Engine specifications Kirloskar TV-I, single cylinder, DI,four stroke, 5.2 kw@1500 constant speed, water cooled ,diesel engine Conclusions • The injection timing is retarded from 230 bTDC to 200 bTDC for TWTO. • FTIR analysis of trans-esterified waste transformer oil showed that it has the characteristics similar to that of conventional diesel fuel. • Improvements in BTH and BSFC with retarded injection. • Exhaust emissions reduced with TWTO operating with the retarded injection timing, At maximum load conditions, it reduces CO (carbon monoxide), NOx, HC (hydrocarbon) emission by 17.24%, 11.57%, and 10% respectively.
  8. 8. 14 Research paper Title K. Varatharajan, M. Cheralathan, R. Velraj c, “Mitigation of NOx emissions from a jatropha biodiesel fuelled DI diesel engine using antioxidant additives”, Fuel, 90 (2011), 2721– 2725. Engine specifications single cylinder, 4.4 kW at 1500 rpm, four stroke, air cooled, direct injection diesel engine Conclusions • The antioxidant additives L-ascorbic acid, a tocopherol acetate, butylated hydroxytoluene, p-phenylenediamine and ethylenediamine were tested • The emissions from the engines were studied at different antioxidant mixtures (0.005, 0.015, 0.025, 0.035, 0.05%-m) with a engine speed of 1500 rpm. • p-phenylenediamine showed the best emission performance. optimum NOx reduction at a level of 0.025%-m. • NOx reduction percent relative to neat biodiesel are 43.55, 32.73, 17.84, 14.51 and 5.86 respectively at 0.025%-m concentration.
  9. 9. 15 Research paper Title J. Devaraj, Y. Robinson, P. Ganapathi, “Experimental investigation of performance, emission and combustion characteristics of waste plastic pyrolysis oil blended with diethyl ether used as fuel for diesel engine”, Energy xxx (2015), 1–6. Engine specifications Single Cylinder, water cooled, 4 stroke diesel engine, 3.7 kW, 1500 rpm. Conclusions • The WPPO (waste plastic pyrolysis oil) mixed with 5% and 10% DEE (diethyl ether) were used as fuels. • The BTh E increased when compared to pure plastic pyrolysis oil and diesel. • The pollutants such as CO (carbon monoxide) and NOx (nitrous oxide) were reduced in the blend. • addition of oxygenates had improved the combustion process and reduced the emissions. • blending of DEE with plastic oil increases the Cetane rating which is superior to neat diesel.
  10. 10. Observations of Literature reviewed • Biodiesel use as an alternative fuel in Diesel engine. • Jatropha, Mahua seed, Coconut oil, Fish oil, Marine Algae etc. • Waste oil such as Waste cooking oil, Waste lubricating oil, Waste plastic oil and Waste transformer oil shows the promising new alternative feedstock to run diesel engine. • Blending ranges 10 to 20 % showed approximately same performance as diesel fuel. • Fuel Properties play vital role on the performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine. 16
  11. 11. Conti… • FTIR identify the basic groups compositional to examine suitability as a diesel engine fuel. • Diesel engine shows better results without any engine modification using biodiesel blends and with additives. • The properties and group compound of WTO found comparable & Emission results showed the poor. • Fuels additives have become essential tool to improve the performance & produce lower emissions. 17
  12. 12. Research Gap • Little work in the area of Waste Oil as an alternative fuel in Diesel engines. • Higher exhaust gas emission compare to Diesel fuel. • With the Additives the performance and emission parameters can shows the better results. • This area of investigation requires further work in order to effective utilisation of WTO. 18
  13. 13. Problem Definition • From the literature reviewed WTO can be used as a replacement of Diesel in Diesel engine. • Performance of engine with WTO is lesser compared to other alternative fuels and emission characteristics were also poor. • But as performance and emission varies with the use of different Additives with different concentration. 19
  14. 14. Conti… • Use of WTO reduces the waste and it can be proved as a better alternative fuel with availability which also helps in keeping environment pollution free. • To achieve this objective, work will be carried out to “An Experimental Investigation on the Performance and Emission Parameters using WTO-Diesel blend with Additives in a Diesel Engine.” 20
  15. 15. Objectives • The main objective of this study is improve the fuel characteristics of WTO blend by adding additives. • Study of WTO as a replacement of Diesel in CI engine. • To identify the chemical compounds present in the WTO by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). • To Study properties of • WTO & compare with Diesel. • WTO blend with Diesel. • To analyse properties WTO - Diesel blends with Additives. 21
  16. 16. Conti… • To develop experimental set up for the analysis of performance and emissions of WTO. • To study the performance and emission parameters of diesel engine run with • Diesel As A Reference Data On Test. • WTO - Diesel Blend. • WTO - Diesel Blend With Additives. • To study economic aspect of fuel cost by replacement of Diesel with WTO, this is waste product. 22
  17. 17. Methodology To identify best concentration of fuel blend based on the performance and emission parameters. Observing the effect of different concentration of Additives with using WTO-Diesel blends and comparing the results with the previous ones. Taking “WTO” into consideration as an alternative fuel for Single cylinder diesel engine to measure, calculate and compare the same parameters, which were carried out during diesel fuel experiments. Measurement and calculations of different parameters and emissions using diesel fuel as the first step at different loading conditions.( IS 10000 part IV) The Experimental setup towards the stated objective and for that Single cylinder diesel engine (3.7 kW, 1500 rpm, water cooled, Electrical dynamometer) is used. Check and Analyse the properties of WTO-Diesel with Additives. Selections of Additives and its concentrations for WTO-Diesel blends. Identifications of Group compound of WTO by FTIR and compare with the group compound of Diesel. The methodology initiates with Analyse properties of WTO and Diesel. 23
  18. 18. WTO (Waste Transformer Oil) Pure Transformer oil Waste transformer Oil 24
  19. 19. Group Compound of WTO (FTIR) 26
  20. 20. Conti… 27
  21. 21. Properties of WTO Sr no Properties WTO Diesel 1 Gross Calorific Value (cal/gm) 11357.05 13054.38 2 Specific Gravity 0.862 0.825 3 Density (kg/m3) 862 825 4 Viscosity (Cp) 20.0@24.50C 6.99@25.80C 29
  22. 22. Material and Methods Fuel Blend name Blend Ratio Diesel WT10 90%Diesel+10%WTO Waste Transformer Oil (WTO) WT10+200ppm PPDA 90%Diesel+10%WTO+200ppm PPDA p-phenylenediamine (PPDA) WT10+500ppm PPDA 90%Diesel+10%WTO+500ppm PPDA Diethyl ether (DE) WT10DE05 85%Diesel+10%WTO+5%Diethyl ether WT10DE10 80%Diesel+10%WTO+10%Diethyl ether 30
  23. 23. Additives used DIETHYL ETHER P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE 31
  24. 24. Properties of Various Blends 32 Sample no WT1 0 WT10+200 ppm PPDA WT10+500 ppm PPDA WT10DE0 5 WT10DE10 Calorific value (MJ/kg) 43.62 43.46 43.52 43.42 43.38 Kinematic Viscosity at 400C(mm2/s) 3.42 3.76 4.02 3.31 3.27 Density (kg/m3) 835.2 841 847.3 834 831 Cetane index 47.5 46 47.2 52 58
  25. 25. Experimental Setup 33
  26. 26. Actual photograph of set up 34
  27. 27. Components of Experimental Set up • Diesel engine • Fuel Consumption Measurement • Air Flow measurement • Exhaust Gas Analyzer • Temperature Measurement • Engine Speed Measurement • Electrical Dynamometer 35
  28. 28. Diesel engine Engine name Kirlosker Engine no. 10.1012/1100662 Cylinder number 1 RPM 1500 BHP 5 KW 3.7 Fuel injection system Direct Injection Bore X stroke 80mm X 110mm Displacement 550 cc Specific fuel consumptions 245 g/kWh Compression ratio 16.5:1 Dynamometer Electrical AC Generator Cooling Water 36
  29. 29. Fuel Consumption measurement 37 Burrete
  30. 30. Air Flow Measurement 38 U tube manometer Air manifoild Orifice (0.017m dia)
  31. 31. Exhaust Gas Analyzer 39 Specifications of Five gas analyser Gases Measured O2, CO2, CO, NOx, HC Principle Non dispersive Infrared for CO, CO2 and HC,electrochemical sensor for O2 and NO Range CO - 0 to 15%, O2 - 0 to 25%, CO2 - 0-20% , NOx - 0 to 5000 ppm, HC - 0 to 30000 ppm (Propane) & 0 to 15000 ppm (Hexene) Accuracy CO - ±0.06 % Vol, CO2 - ±0.5 % Vol, O2 - ±0.1 % Vol, HC - ± 12 ppm Vol. Sample Handling System S.S. probe, PU tubing with easily detachable connector, water separator cum filter, disposable fine filter. Dimensions (w*h*l) 340*130*240 mm
  32. 32. Temperature Measurement • Resistance temperature detector (RTD) is used for sensing the low temperatures (Range: 0-2000C). • The high temperature of the exhaust gas is sensing by K- type thermocouple (Range: 0-15000C). 40
  33. 33. Engine Speed Measurement • The proximity sensor is mounted below the engine coupling for measuring the speed. • The sensor is connected to the control panel system. • Speed will be displayed on the screen (Range: 1-9999 RPM). 41
  34. 34. Electrical Dynamometer 42 Specifications of Electrical Dynamometer TYPE A C Generator OUTPUT 7.5 KVA VOLTS 230 Ph 1 AMPS 32.6 FREQ 50 Hz rpm 1500 PF 1 Electrical Dynamometer
  35. 35. Control Panel 43 Temperatures Engine speed Voltage Current Load knob
  36. 36. Parameters to study Performance Parameters Emission Parameters Brake Power Carbon dioxide Brake Thermal Efficiency Carbon monoxide Specific Fuel Consumption Oxygen Exhaust Gas Temperature Nitrogen oxides Volumetric efficiency Hydrocarbon 44
  37. 37. 45
  38. 38. 46
  39. 39. 47
  40. 40. 50
  41. 41. 52
  42. 42. 53
  43. 43. 55
  44. 44. Conclusion • WTO can be used as alternative fuel. The diesel engine run with the WT10 blend with additives without any modification. • BSFC and BTE of the Diesel engine is improved when it is fuelled with WTO- Diesel blend with DE additives. • EGT for the WT10 its blend with PPDA additive and WT10DE05 is higher than Diesel fuel. WT10DE10 shows the lower EGT than Diesel for all load. • CO & HC emissions found higher for PPDA blends then Diesel and WT10. • At higher load WT10DE10 shows reduction of CO than Diesel and WT10. DE additives reduce HC emission than WT10. • Both additives found lower NOx emission than WT10. WT10DE10 found highest reduction than other fuel. At full load condition it reduce 12.98% NOx than WT10 and 9% than Diesel. 500ppmPPDA reduce more NOx than 200ppmPPDA. • WT10DE10 has been selected as optimum blend from its performance and emissions result and Economical analysis. 56
  45. 45. Future Scope • Catalytic cracking process will employ to enhance the properties of WTO. So, higher percentage of WTO can be utilised. • Different types of additives can be use to improve performance and reduce emissions. • Change in Injection pressure and Injection timing can be studied for different WTO-Diesel blend. • Trans-esterified waste transformer oil can be use with different additives. • Experimental work can be done on Combustions characteristics for different blends. 57
  46. 46. Paper Published [1].Tarun B Patel, Prof K D Panchal, Dr A S Shah, “A Technical Review Paper on Use of WTO (Waste Transformer Oil)-Diesel Blends With Additives in a Diesel Engine”, International Journal for Scientific Research and Development, Volume 3, Issue 10, Dec 2015. [2].Tarun B Patel, Prof K D Panchal, Dr A S Shah, “Characterisation of WTO (Waste Transformer Oil) & Diesel by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy & Effect of Additives on Properties of WTO-Diesel Blends.”, International Journal for Scientific Research and Development, Volume 3, Issue 11, January 2016. [3].Tarun B Patel, Prof K D Panchal, Dr A S Shah, “An Experimental Investigation on the Performance Parameters using WTO-Diesel blends with Additives in a Diesel Engine.”, International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas in Education, Volume 2, Issue 3, 2016. 58
  47. 47. References PAPER [1].Rao PV, “Experimental investigations on the influence of properties of jatropha biodiesel on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI-CI Engine”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol: 5, 2011-03-23. [2].Amit Pal, “An Experimental Investigation of Jatropha Biodiesel Blends in a Multi Cylinder CI Engine: Performance and Emissions Study”, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.3, No.5 (December 2013), ISSN 2277 – 4106. [3].A.M. Liaquat, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam, I.M. Rizwanul Fattah, M.A. Hazrat, M. Varman, M. Mofijur, M. Shahabuddin, “Effect of coconut biodiesel blended fuels on engine performance and emission characteristics”, Procedia Engineering, 56 (2013), 583 – 590. [4].A. Sanjid, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Kalam,M.J. Abedin and S. M. Ashrafur Rahman, “Experimental Investigation of Mustard Biodiesel Blend Properties, Performance, Exhaust Emission and Noise in an Unmodified Diesel Engine”, APCBEE Procedia, 10 ( 2014 ), 149 – 153. [5].R.Velappan, and S.Sivaprakasam, “Investigation of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Bio Diesel from Marine Algae”, International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 1 Issue 4, June 2014. [6].S. Savariraj, T. Ganapathy, C. G. Saravanan, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of fish-oil biodiesel engine”, European Journal of Applied Engineering and Scientific Research, 2013, 2 (3):26- 32. [7].Gautam Kumar & Anoop Kumar, “Characterisation of Mahua and coconut biodiesel by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and comparison of spray behaviour of Mahua biodiesel” International Journal of Ambient Energy, 2014. 59
  48. 48. [8].Wail M. Adaileh and Khaled S. AlQdah, “Performance of Diesel Engine Fuelled by a Biodiesel Extracted from a Waste Cocking Oil” Energy Procedia, 18 (2012), 1317 – 1334. [9].Orhan Arpa , Recep Yumrutaş , Zeki Argunhan, “ Experimental investigation of the effects of diesel-like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performance and exhaust emission”, Fuel Processing Technology, 91 (2010), 1241–1249. [10].M. Mani, C. Subash, G. Nagarajan, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine using waste plastic oil”, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29 (2009), 2738–2744. [11].Md Nurun Nabi, Md Shamim Akhter, Md Atiqur Rahman, “Waste transformer oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine”, Procedia Engineering, 56 (2013), 401 – 406. [12].Pritinika Behera, S.Murugan “Combustion, performance and emission parameters of used transformer oil and its diesel blends in a DI diesel engine”, Fuel, 104 (2013), 147–154. [13].S. Prasanna Raj Yadav, C.G. Saravanan, M. Kannan “Influence of injection timing on DI diesel engine characteristics fueled with waste transformer oil”, Alexandria Engineering Journal, (2015) [14].Mohd Hafizil Mat Yasin, Rizalman Mamat, Ahmad Fitri Yusop, Rafidah Rahim, Amir Aziz and Liyana Amer Shah, “Fuel Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Blend Fuels with Alcohol as Additives”, Procedia Engineering, 53 (2013), 701 – 706. [15].Swarup Kumar Nayak, Bhabani Prasanna Pattanaik, “Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Mahua Biodiesel Using Additive”, Energy Procedia, 54 ( 2014 ), 569 – 579. Conti… 60
  49. 49. [16].G.R. Kannan, R. Karvembu, R. Anand, “Effect of metal based additive on performance emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel”, Applied Energy, 88 (2011), 3694–3703. [17]. Erol Ileri, Günnur Koçar, “Experimental investigation of the effect of antioxidant additives on NOx emissions of a diesel engine using biodiesel”, Fuel, 125 (2014), 44–49. [18].K. Varatharajan, M. Cheralathan, R. Velraj c, “Mitigation of NOx emissions from a jatropha biodiesel fuelled DI diesel engine using antioxidant additives”, Fuel, 90 (2011), 2721–2725. [19].S. Imtenan, H.H. Masjuki, M. Varman, M.A. Kalam, M.I. Arbab, H. Sajjad, S.M. Ashrafur Rahman, “Impact of oxygenated additives to palm and jatropha biodiesel blends in the context of performance and emissions characteristics of a light-duty diesel engine”, Energy Conversion and Management, 83 (2014), 149–158. [20].J. Devaraj, Y. Robinson, P. Ganapathi, “Experimental investigation of performance, emission and combustion characteristics of waste plastic pyrolysis oil blended with diethyl ether used as fuel for diesel engine”, Energy xxx (2015), 1-6. WEBSITE [I].Report on “Energy Statistics in INDIA – 2015” http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/Energy_stats_2015_26mar15.pdf [II].A Guide To “Transformer Oil Analysis” http://stacs.co.za/Transformer_Oil_Analysis.pdf BOOKS [i]S.S. Thipse, Alternative Fuels Concepts, Technologies and Developments, 2nd Edition, Jaico Publishing House, India, 2011. [ii]V GANESAN, Internal Combustion Engine; 3rd Edition; Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2007. [iii]S.S. Thipse, Internal Combustion Engine, 3rd Edition, Jaico Publishing House, India, 2010. Conti… 61
  50. 50. •THANK YOU 62

×